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GOST 7396 standard plugs and sockets
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The Russian GOST 7396 standard describes technical specifications and safety requirements of plugs and sockets. The characteristics of GOST 7396 group C are quite similar to IEC specifications.
Group C has six categories:
C1: unearthed plugs and sockets (6A, 10A, 16A); comparable to CEE 7/1  and 7/2
C2: earthed types, comparable to CEE 7/3 and 7/4;
C3: earthed types, comparable to French CEE 7/5 and 7/6; 
C4: earthed hybrid types, comparable to CEE 7/7;
C5: plugs comparable to Europlugs (2.5A), but also 6A unearthed Schuko/French hybrid plugs;
C6: unearthed 16A hybrid plugs, comparable to CEE 7/17.

 

Russian Schuko socket Russian non-earthed socket (1)
Russian non-earthed socket (2)
Russian non-earthed socket, detais of contacts (1)
 
Russian Schuko plug Russian GOST C6 plug
GOST 7396 C1 plug made in DDR for Russian market
Russian non-earthed plug

1 Earthed GOST 7396 C2 socket, rated at 10-16A, 250V. Hole diameter: of 5.5 mm. A rating of both 10A and 16A indicate that the socket can be use houses that still have a 10A local circuit, as well as more modern premises with 16A circuits.   {PO}
2 Not earthed GOST 7396 C1 socket, rated at 10A, 250V. Hole diameter: of 5.3 mm.   {PO}
3 Older model than no. 2 of a not earthed GOST 7396 C1 socket, rated at 6A, 250V. Hole diameter: of 4.5 mm.   {PM}
4 Socket no. 3 has a remarkable construction detail. To ensure a good contact between outlet and pin, a spring presses a copper strip firmly against the pin (see inset a). This feature results in optimal pin contact regardless pin diameter. Inset b shows a contact of socket no. 2. The copper contact strips have a reduced elasticity. After inserting a plug with 4.8 mm pins the strips tend to stay wide open. Next, a plug with 4.0 mm pins may not make good contact anymore.  Inset c shows a more usual, and safer type of contact, due to the additional spring that keeps the strips in sufficiently closed position.
5 Earthed GOST 7396 C2 plug, rated at 16A, 250V. Pin diameter: 4.8 mm.   {PO}
Plug has both a Russian and Belarusian certification mark, see image nos. 13 and 15 (bottom).
6 Not earthed GOST 7396 C1 plug, rated at 6A, 250V. Pin diameter: 4.0 mm. Note that the plug will also fit in earthed, C2 sockets. See plug no. 7 for a model with a fully round base, that does not fit in C2 sockets.   {PO}
7 GOST 7396 C1 plug, rated at 6A, 250V. Pin diameter: 4.0 mm. The plug was made in the former German Democratic Republic (DDR) and has logos of two 'Volkseigener Betriebe", VEB): IKA* and ERU**.   {PM}
* IKA stands for VEB für Installationen, Kabel und Apparate in Leipzig. In 1958 it became a part of the much larger VEB Elektroinstallation Sonderhausen.
** ERU stands for VEB Elektroinstallation Ruhla (Thüringen). Later it became part of VEB Keramische Werke Hermsdorf.
VEB = Publicly Owned Operation; common form of state ownership of former private enterprises.
8 Not earthed GOST 7396 C5 plug, rated at 6A, 250V. Pin diameter: 4.0 mm. Fits in C1, C2 and French-type sockets.

 

Russian cable reel
  Russian 2-pole 36V plug
Russian 2-pole 36V plug

9 Russian reel with 3.2 meter of two wire flat cable. Unknown brand name. It has a logo with Cyrillic characters МКЗ (EmKaZe), see inset top right. The yellow rim has the following note: 220V up to 1200W  Attention !  With maximum load fully unwind cable. The exact Russian wording is shown below the reel. Elsewhere, a rating of 6A - 250V is indicated. The flat cable has a Schuko/French hybrid plug with 4.0 mm pins; outlets accept only plugs with 4.0 mm pins.   {WM}

10, 11
Russian plug rated at 10A - 36V with two perpendicularly positioned pins. The contact base gives the following information:
10 а (Ампер = Ampere),  36 в (Водвт = Volt) and: СДЕЛАНО В СССР = MADE IN USSR  (Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik = Union of Soviet Socialist Republics). The USSR existed until 25 December 1991.
A logo - diamond with letter E - can be seen at the center of the contact base.
Plug diameter = 26.9 mm; pin width = 5.8 mm; pin length = 16.7 mm.   {PO}

The Wikipedia page on domestic AC power plugs and sockets explains the unusual low voltage for this type of plug:
"In the former Soviet Union this socket1 was and still is commonly used for wiring in places where the voltage is lowered for safety purposes, like in schools, filling stations or in wet areas, and is rated 42 V2 10 A AC. Such an unusual connection is intended specifically to make the connection of standard higher-voltage equipment impossible."
1 this socket refers to a 2-slot outlet that has slots in a T-configuration (which resembles old US T-slot plugs)
2 it is assumed that the difference between 36V (plug) and 42V (socket) is insignificant.

 

Russian 3-way multi-plug
GOST mark Russian plug / socket logos Russian plug logos

12 Not earthed adapter plug for three GOST 7396 C1 plugs. Pin diameter: 4.0 mm, diameter of holes: 4.5 mm. Rating: 6A, 250V.   {PO}
13 GOST mark of conformity for mandatory verification. Photo has been taken from socket no. 2, but it was also on nos. 1, 5 and 6.
GOST (ГОСТ) is an acronym for GOsudarstvennyy STandart, which means state standard, initially developed in the Soviet Union and later adopted by the Russian Federation.
14 Logo on socket nos. 1 and 2. Both socket are manufactured by ООО КУНЦЕВО-ЭЛЕКТРО = Kuntsevo-Elektro (OOO ≈ Ltd), Kuntsevo is a region in the southwestern part of the Moscow metropolitan area. The top logo might be the K-Electro logo, but could not be verified. The bottom logo belongs to plug no. 6. Details about the Russian company UNIVERSAL® are unknown.
15 Logos on GOST 7396 C2 plug no. 5. Top: probably logo of the - unknown - Russian manufacturer.
Bottom: СТБ mark of the National Certification, Standards, and Measurements Committee of the Republic of Belarus.*
Countries of the Russian Federation - among others Belarus - have their own national standards which are based on GOST (Russian state standards, see image no. 13).
* information given by Yevgeniy Kovalenkov.

 


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