Museum of Plugs and Sockets logo, small Manufacturers of plugs and sockets
in BE, CZ, FR, MA and PL
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Note that logos and information are restricted to companies and brands of material that is shown in the museum. Countries and manufacturers are listed in alphabetical order.

Belgium     Czech Republic     France     Morocco     Poland
Each of these countries uses the CEE 7/5-7/6 standard for domestic appliances.

French material may have additional marks. Information is given after the company list.

Sources: catalogs and internet sites of the given companies and Wikipedia.
® shown logos are registered trademarks of given companies or brands.
Logos may not be copied, except for strict encyclopedic purposes in relation to plugs and sockets.



Gardy logos

Gardy. In 1886 Auguste Gardy started in Geneva, Switzerland, production of porcelain accessories for electrical lighting in theaters. The S.A. Appareillages Gardy was founded in 1890. The Belgian subsidiary Société Belge Gardy was founded in 1913 in Buizingen. The company moved five yeas later to Molenbeek and in 1920 to Brussels-Uccles/Ukkel.
Production focussed on switches, sockets and circuit breakers for high and low tension. In 1976 Gardy became part of the French Merlin-Gerin group which was acquired by Schneider Electric in 1994. From 2008 the trade names Gardy and Merlin-Gerin are no longer used, in favour of Scheider Electric.
Niko logos

Niko. In 1919 founded by Alphonse and Werner Backer in Sint-Niko-laas (Sint-Niklaas, East Flanders). First, sockets and switches were produced for the Belgian market; export started in 1965. The still family owned company has now branches in seven European countries.
Vynckier logos

Vynckier Frères & Cie. In 1920 two brothers, Maurice and Urbain Vynckier founded the limited partnership Vynckier Frères et Compagnie in Brussels. Gaspard, the third brother, joined later.
In 1922 the Usine Belge de matériel électrique Vynckier Frères & Cie was founded in Gent (Ghent). The Usine Belge ... exploited the licenses of the 1920 Vynckier Frères ... limited partnership. See also the close relation between Vynckier and CIEM, below.

The US Bakelite patent was expired in December 1926. A few years later Vynckier has mastered the skills of making its own Bakelite. The product was named Vyncolit. The new material was used for a large range of low voltage electrical appliances. In the 1930s Vynckier was one of the largest Belgian manufacturers of switch boxes, fuses and electrical accessories.

The family business ended in 1964 and the company became a part of the British General Electric Company, and in 1989 a joint venture of G.E.C. and the American General Electric.
In 1993 the Vyncolit division was separated and soon thereafter sold to the Swedish company Perstorp. Since 2005 Vyncolit is a part of the Japanese Sumitomo Bakelite Group.
In 2006 the electro-technical company in Gent became a part of GE Industrial Solutions. Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) acquired Vynckier Frères et Compagnie im 2018.
CIEM logos
CIEM stands for Comptoir d'Import et d'Export de Materiel (material import and export business enterprise). It was founded by the Vynckier brothers to buy necessary components that were not made by Vynckier, and to sell Vynckier products to foreign countries. For example, initially transformers for doorbells had to be imported. Later, Vynckier/CIEM made its own transformers. Casts were made by the Vyncolit division. Finished products had a CIEM logo. The collection of the Industie Museum in Gent, Belgium shows examples CIEM products.
Vynckier plugs,sockets and switches were mentioned in CIEM catalogs as Vynckier products and had the characteristic VFC logo (see above).

The museum is grateful to Robin Debo, ETWIE (Center of Expertise for Technical, Scientific and Industrial heritage) in Ghent, Belgium, for his thorough research into the history of CIEM.


Czech Republic

Kramer & Loebl and Elektro Praga logos

Hans Buellmann logo

Elektro Praga. In 1868 Gustav Kramer and Adalbert Löbl started production of refined glass and crystal lamps and chandeliers in Jablonec nad Nisou (Gablonz in the Austro-Hungarian Empire).
In 1908 they started production of accessories related to electric lighting, as sockets, plugs and switches. It proved to be a profitable market. Glass production was scaled down and ended in 1924. The company was renamed Kramer und Löbl, Fabrik elektrotechnischer Artikel (top left logo). In 1931 Kramer and Löbl introduced the Bakelite molding process in Czechoslovakia. The company became the dominant manufacturer of electrical accessories and exported products to many countries all over the world.
After annexation of Czechoslovakia in 1939 by Nazi Germany, the company was confiscated.* From 1940 production was fully focused on war industry. After World War II, industry was nationalized in Czechoslovakia. Electro-technical companies were merged and renamed to Elektro-Praga. The plant in Jablonec nad Nisou had the monopoly for manufacturing electrical accessories. In 1989 state owned enterprises were privatized. In 1993 Elektro-Praga in Jablonec nad Nisou became part of the Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) concern.

After confiscation aryanization followed. The Jewish owner Hugo Löbl  was dismissed and replaced the German Hans Büllmann. The company was renamed Hans Büllmann - Werke für Elektrotechnik und Feinmechanik, Gablonz-Schlag/Sudetenland. The initials K and L in the company logo changed into HB.



Electraline CBB S.A. logo

Electraline CBB is the former company Les Cableries de Bagnère de Bigorre SA which was acquired in 1997 by the Italian manufacturer Electraline 3Pmark in Concorezzo (MB). More information about Electraline is given in the list of Italian manufacturers.
Electro-Securit logo

Electro Sécurit, Antibes. Hardly any details about the company have been found. Material in the museum collection and items that are on offer on internet suggest that Electro Sécurit started business after WW II, possibly 1953 (source). In 1956 Electro Sécurit was the first acquisition by Legrand (see below). The Legrand Antibes production plant still exists.
L'Ebenoid logos

L'Ébénoïd. Founded in 1922 in Villeurbanne (Lyon). The name Ébenoïd is composed of 'Eben' and 'oïd'. Eben refers to Ebony, a dense black hardwood, that was used in the first products of the company. The suffix oid means having the likeness of. The elephant, introduced on Bakelite plugs and sockets, represents the product robustness. In 2001 L'Ébénoïd joins the Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) Group. L'Ébénoïd head office moved in 2010 to Saint Priest (Lyon). The company has specialized on lighting and electrical accessories.
Legrand logos
1925-'67                                         1968-'73
1975- ...

Legrand. In 1865 Henri Barjaud de Lafond and Léonard Clidasson started a table porcelain workshop in Limoges. In 1904 the company was taken over by Frédéric Legrand, Charles Alary and Jean Joquel. In 1919 the product range was enlarge with manufacturing switches made of boxwood and porcelain. The addition proved to be successful; the company was renamed Legrand et Cie, Manufacture de Porcelaines et d'Appareillage électrique.
In 1949 a fire destroyed most of the porcelain production facilities. After that the directors, Jean Verspieren and Edouard Decoster decided to abandon tableware production and to focus on electrical wiring and installation equipment only. To build a strong global position many companies have been taken over, as: Pial, Brazil (1977), Pass & Seymour, USA (1984), Btichino, Italy and Latin America (1989), TCL, China (2005), HPM, Australia (2007) and many others.
Appareillage Electrique Maure logo

Appareillage Electrique Maure. Adrien Maure and his son Germain started in 1920 manufacturing porcelain switches, lamp fittings, plugs and sockets in Orléans. According to the Maure 1932 catalog they were the first company in France producing Bakelite electrical equipment. In 1931 Germain and his brother Etienne founded the company Thermor, specialized in producing electrical household equipment. Thermor merged with Sauter in 1965 and became a part of the French Groupe Atlantic, which is still active in renewable energy applications.
The electrical accessories part of Maure was acquired by Legrand in 1951. The trademark Maure disappeared in 1988.
Schneider Electric logo

Schneider Electric. In 1836 the brothers Adolphe and Eugène Schneider acquired a foundry in Le Creusot (Burgundy region). Two years later they created the steel industry Schneider & Cie. After Wold War I the company had to reconvert to civil production. Projects related to electrification was one of the options. Comparable decisions had to made after WW II. Steel industry was still the prime option. The severe economic crisis in the mid 1970s forced the company to reconsider its strategy. The acquisition of a main interest in Merlin-Gerin (electrical distribution equipment) has influenced the decision to abandon steel industry in favour of  electrical industry. From the 1980s many acquisition followed and Schneider Electric is now a multinational corporation specialized in energy management and automation.
Soremec-Cehess logo

Societé Soremec - Cehess, in Rungis (near Paris). When and by whom the company has been founded is unknown. In the 1960s, '70s and early '80 Soremec-Cehess was known in particular as manufacturer of fuses and circuit protection devices for aircraft, military applications and industrial applications. The Swiss Schurter Group acquired the company in 1985. 

Other marks that can be found on French plugs and sockets.

USE mark     Norme Francaise mark
USE mark               NF mark

Certification mark. The Union des Syndicats de l'Electricité (USE) started certification in 1924. In 1947 renamed Union Technique de l'Electricité (UTE). Standards are defined by the Association Française de Normalisation (AFNOR). The NF (Norme Française) mark was introduced in 1939. French standard NF C15-100 regulates low voltage electrical installations. The mark shown left has been introduced after WW II.
The left number relates to the type of product (10024, later 61-303 = CEE 7/5 and 7/6).
The right number indicates the producer (2 = Legrand, 16 = L'Ébénoïd, 194 = Vynckier).
Nowadays certification marks consist of the abbreviation NF only.
Plastique Francais mark

PF mark

Bakelite quality mark. Plastique Français marque de Qualité, created in 1942 by the Centre d'´Etude des Materières Plastique. From 1946 quality testing of phenoplast and aminoplast resins and products was done by Union Technique de l'Electricité (UTE) in Paris. It seems likely that Bakelite quality testing ended in the 1960s.
The left number indicates the type of material (P11 and P21 are phenol-formaldehyde resins).
The right number indicates the producer (37 = L'Ébénoïd, 54 = Maure, 144 = Legrand).

Logos of unknown companies or brands, found on French material in the museum collection.
If you recognize a logo, please contact me. Find the address on the start page.

Unknown logo on French adapter plug

Unknown logo on French plug

Unknown logo on French socket

Unknown logo on French plug
Found on CEE 7/4→6 adapter

Found on CEE 7/6 plug
USE mark: 61-303  / 981

Found on CEE 7/5 socket
USE mark: 61-303 / 1142

Found on CEE 7/6 plug
USE mark: 61-303 / 212



Logo of L.A.P (Label d’assemblage et de production)

Label d'Assemblage et de Production (L.A.P.). Founded in 1996 in Casablanca. Manufacture of electrical accessories for domestic use. Products are marked in Morocco, France and African countries that have been electrified by French companies.



Eltra and Elda logos

Unitra-Eltra logo

Elda-Eltra Elektrotechnika. The Eltra company was founded in 1923 by Stefan Ciszewski in Bydgoszcz. In 1926 the factory was named Fabryka Artykułów Elektrotechnicznych (Electrotechnical Product Factory). The company was confiscated by Nazi Germany in 1939. After WW II the electro-technical company restarted under supervision of the Central Board of the Metal Industry, and in 1956 the Central Board of Teletechnical Industry "Unitra". It became a state controlled company. They produced the first portable transistor radio in Poland and became the major manufacturer of radios. In 1966 the company was renamed Unitra Eltra Zaklady Radiowe (Radio Factory)  In 1998 Eltra was bought by the Scandinavian capital group LEXEL, a branch of Schneider Electric.

Elda-Elektrotechnika was founded in 1957 in Szczecinek. The company was specialized in a full range of electrical accessories for residential and commercial buildings. In 1999 Elda was acquired by Schneider Electric. In 2003 the two Polish Schneider Electra subsidiaries merged and became Elda-Eltra Elektrotechnika S.A. (Spółka Akcyjna = public limited company).
Kontakt Simon logo

Kontakt Simon SA. In 1921 representatives of Polish industry and industrial banks founded Spółka Akcyjna Przemysłu Elektrycznego (Electrical Industry Joint Stock Company) in Czechowice. They produced lightning and signaling equipment, measuring instruments, fuses and switches. After WW II the range of electric accessories was enlarged further.
In 1994 the company was transformed intro a state owned joint stock company, named Fabryka Sprzetu Elektrotechnicznego (Electrotechnical Equipment Factory) "Kontakt SA". In 2003 shares were sold to the Italian company Urmet Domus and the Spanish group Simon Holding. The company, specialized in electrical installation equipment is renamed Kontakt-Simon SA in 2005.
Ospel logo

Ospel S.A. Founded in 1953 in Wierbka. Manufacturer of domestic electrical accessories. In the past they have also produced a range of cast iron heavy duty (3-phase) material.
Plastrol logo

Plas-Rol Sp.J.*. Founded in 1983 in Lotyń. Production and sale of electrical installation products. Trade name: Plastrol.
* spółka jawna = partnership in which partners share equally in both responsibility and liability.
Timex logo

Jonex logo

Elektrotaaj logo

Timex Sp.J. founded in 1983 by Stanisława and Andrzej Tomczak, JONEX Sp.z.o.o.Sp.K.*, founded in 1988 by Adam and Teresa Jonczyk, and Elektrotaaj S.C.* (Adam and Teresa Jonczyk, and Andrzej and Stanisława Tomczak) are three closely related companies in Szczecinek.
Timex produces electrical installation material. Jonex started as manufacturer of plastic products. Both companies founded Elektrotaaj, wholesale of electrical accessories and electrical household goods.
* Sp.z.o.o.Sp.K. = Spółka z ograniczoną odpowiedzialnością Spółka komandytowa = Limited liability and limited partnership company. S.C = Spółka cywilna = another type of limited liability company, comparable to SARL (Société à Responsabilité Limitée) in France.


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