|Manufacturers of plugs
in BE, CZ, FR, MA and PL
logos and information are restricted to companies and brands of
that is shown in the museum.
Countries and manufacturers are listed in alphabetical order.
Each of these countries uses the CEE 7/5-7/6 standard for domestic appliances.
French material may have additional marks. Information is given after the company list.
Sources: catalogs and internet sites of the given companies and Wikipedia.
® shown logos are registered trademarks of given companies or brands. Logos may not be copied, except for strict encyclopedic purposes in relation to plugs and sockets.
|Gardy. In 1886 Auguste Gardy
started in Geneva, Switzerland, production of porcelain accessories for
electrical lighting in theaters. The S.A. Appareillages Gardy
founded in 1890. The Belgian subsidiary Société Belge Gardy was
founded in 1913 in Buizingen. The company moved five yeas later to
Molenbeek and in 1920 to Brussels-Uccles/Ukkel.
Production focussed on switches, sockets and circuit breakers for high and low tension. In 1976 Gardy became part of the French Merlin-Gerin group which was acquired by Schneider Electric in 1994. From 2008 the trade names Gardy and Merlin-Gerin are no longer used, in favour of Scheider Electric.
In 1919 founded by Alphonse and Werner Backer in Sint-Niko-laas
(Sint-Niklaas, East Flanders). First, sockets and switches were
produced for the Belgian market; export started in 1965. The still
family owned company has now branches in seven European countries.
|Vynckier Frères & Cie. In 1920
brothers, Maurice and Urbain Vynckier founded the limited partnership Vynckier
Frères et Compagnie in Brussels. Gaspard, the
In 1922 the Usine Belge de matériel électrique Vynckier Frères & Cie was founded in Gent (Ghent). The Usine Belge ... exploited the licenses of the 1920 Vynckier Frères ... limited partnership. See also the close relation between Vynckier and CIEM, below.
The US Bakelite patent was expired in December 1926. A few years later Vynckier has mastered the skills of making its own Bakelite. The product was named Vyncolit. The new material was used for a large range of low voltage electrical appliances. In the 1930s Vynckier was one of the largest Belgian manufacturers of switch boxes, fuses and electrical accessories.
The family business ended in 1964 and the company became a part of the British General Electric Company, and in 1989 a joint venture of G.E.C. and the American General Electric.
In 1993 the Vyncolit division was separated and soon thereafter sold to the Swedish company Perstorp. Since 2005 Vyncolit is a part of the Japanese Sumitomo Bakelite Group.
In 2006 the electro-technical company in Gent became a part of GE Industrial Solutions. Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) acquired Vynckier Frères et Compagnie im 2018.
|CIEM stands for Comptoir
et d'Export de Materiel (material import and export
business enterprise). It was founded by the Vynckier brothers
necessary components that were not made by Vynckier, and to sell
Vynckier products to foreign countries. For example, initially
transformers for doorbells had to be imported. Later, Vynckier/CIEM
made its own transformers. Casts were made by the Vyncolit division.
Finished products had a CIEM logo. The collection of the Industie
Museum in Gent, Belgium shows examples CIEM products.
Vynckier plugs,sockets and switches were mentioned in CIEM catalogs as Vynckier products and had the characteristic VFC logo (see above).
The museum is grateful to Robin Debo, ETWIE (Center of Expertise for Technical, Scientific and Industrial heritage) in Ghent, Belgium, for his thorough research into the history of CIEM.
Praga. In 1868 Gustav Kramer and Adalbert Löbl started
production of refined glass and crystal lamps and chandeliers in
Jablonec nad Nisou (Gablonz in the Austro-Hungarian Empire).
In 1908 they started production of accessories related to electric lighting, as sockets, plugs and switches. It proved to be a profitable market. Glass production was scaled down and ended in 1924. The company was renamed Kramer und Löbl, Fabrik elektrotechnischer Artikel (top left logo). In 1931 Kramer and Löbl introduced the Bakelite molding process in Czechoslovakia. The company became the dominant manufacturer of electrical accessories and exported products to many countries all over the world.
After annexation of Czechoslovakia in 1939 by Nazi Germany, the company was confiscated.* From 1940 production was fully focused on war industry. After World War II, industry was nationalized in Czechoslovakia. Electro-technical companies were merged and renamed to Elektro-Praga. The plant in Jablonec nad Nisou had the monopoly for manufacturing electrical accessories. In 1989 state owned enterprises were privatized. In 1993 Elektro-Praga in Jablonec nad Nisou became part of the Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) concern.
After confiscation aryanization followed. The Jewish owner Hugo Löbl was dismissed and replaced the German Hans Büllmann. The company was renamed Hans Büllmann - Werke für Elektrotechnik und Feinmechanik, Gablonz-Schlag/Sudetenland. The initials K and L in the company logo changed into HB.
|Electraline CBB is the former company Les Cableries de Bagnère de Bigorre SA which was acquired in 1997 by the Italian manufacturer Electraline 3Pmark in Concorezzo (MB). More information about Electraline is given in the list of Italian manufacturers.|
|Electro Sécurit, Antibes. Hardly
any details about the company have been found. Material in the museum
collection and items that are on offer on internet suggest that Electro
Sécurit started business after WW II, possibly 1953 (source). In 1956 Electro Sécurit was the first
acquisition by Legrand (see below). The Legrand Antibes production
plant still exists.
|L'Ébénoïd. Founded in 1922 in
Villeurbanne (Lyon). The name Ébenoïd is composed of 'Eben' and 'oïd'.
Eben refers to Ebony, a dense black hardwood, that was used in the
first products of the company. The suffix oid means having the likeness
of. The elephant, introduced on Bakelite plugs and sockets, represents
the product robustness. In 2001 L'Ébénoïd joins the Asea Brown Boveri
(ABB) Group. L'Ébénoïd head office moved in 2010 to Saint Priest
(Lyon). The company has specialized on lighting and electrical
|Legrand. In 1865 Henri Barjaud de
Lafond and Léonard Clidasson started a table porcelain workshop in
Limoges. In 1904 the company was taken over by Frédéric Legrand,
Charles Alary and Jean Joquel. In 1919 the product range was enlarge
with manufacturing switches made of boxwood and porcelain. The addition
proved to be successful; the company was renamed Legrand et Cie,
Manufacture de Porcelaines et d'Appareillage électrique.
In 1949 a fire destroyed most of the porcelain production facilities. After that the directors, Jean Verspieren and Edouard Decoster decided to abandon tableware production and to focus on electrical wiring and installation equipment only. To build a strong global position many companies have been taken over, as: Pial, Brazil (1977), Pass & Seymour, USA (1984), Btichino, Italy and Latin America (1989), TCL, China (2005), HPM, Australia (2007) and many others.
|Appareillage Electrique Maure.
Adrien Maure and his son Germain started in 1920 manufacturing
porcelain switches, lamp fittings, plugs and sockets in Orléans.
According to the Maure 1932 catalog they were the first company in
France producing Bakelite electrical equipment. In 1931 Germain and his
brother Etienne founded the company Thermor, specialized in producing
electrical household equipment. Thermor merged with Sauter in 1965 and
became a part of the French Groupe Atlantic, which is still active in
renewable energy applications.
The electrical accessories part of Maure was acquired by Legrand in 1951. The trademark Maure disappeared in 1988.
In 1836 the brothers Adolphe and Eugène Schneider acquired a foundry in
Le Creusot (Burgundy region). Two years later they created the steel
industry Schneider & Cie. After Wold War I the company had to
reconvert to civil production. Projects related to electrification was
one of the options. Comparable decisions had to made after WW II. Steel
industry was still the prime option. The severe economic crisis in the
mid 1970s forced the company to reconsider its strategy. The
acquisition of a main interest in Merlin-Gerin (electrical distribution
equipment) has influenced the decision to abandon steel industry in
favour of electrical industry. From the 1980s many acquisition
followed and Schneider Electric is now a multinational corporation
specialized in energy management and automation.
|Societé Soremec - Cehess,
in Rungis (near Paris). When and by whom the company has been founded
is unknown. In the 1960s, '70s and early '80 Soremec-Cehess was known
in particular as manufacturer of fuses and circuit protection devices
aircraft, military applications and industrial applications.
The Swiss Schurter Group acquired the company in 1985.
Other marks that can be found on French plugs and sockets.
USE mark NF mark
|Certification mark. The Union
l'Electricité (USE) started certification in 1924. In 1947 renamed Union
Technique de l'Electricité (UTE). Standards are
defined by the Association Française
de Normalisation (AFNOR). The NF (Norme Française) mark was
in 1939. French standard NF C15-100 regulates low voltage electrical
The mark shown left has been introduced after WW II.
The left number relates to the type of product (10024, later 61-303 = CEE 7/5 and 7/6).
The right number indicates the producer (2 = Legrand, 16 = L'Ébénoïd, 194 = Vynckier).
Nowadays certification marks consist of the abbreviation NF only.
|Bakelite quality mark. Plastique
Français marque de Qualité, created
in 1942 by
the Centre d'´Etude des Materières Plastique. From 1946 quality
of phenoplast and aminoplast resins and products was done by Union
Technique de l'Electricité (UTE) in Paris. It seems likely that
Bakelite quality testing ended in the 1960s.
The left number indicates the type of material (P11 and P21 are phenol-formaldehyde resins).
The right number indicates the producer (37 = L'Ébénoïd, 54 = Maure, 144 = Legrand).
of unknown companies or brands, found on French material in the museum
If you recognize a logo, please contact me. Find the address on the start page.
|Found on CEE 7/4→6 adapter
||Found on CEE 7/6 plug
USE mark: 61-303 / 981
|Found on CEE 7/5 socket
USE mark: 61-303 / 1142
|Found on CEE 7/6 plug
USE mark: 61-303 / 212
|Label d'Assemblage et de Production
Founded in 1996 in Casablanca. Manufacture of electrical accessories
for domestic use. Products are marked in Morocco, France and African
countries that have been electrified by French companies.
|Elda-Eltra Elektrotechnika. The
Eltra company was
founded in 1923 by Stefan Ciszewski in Bydgoszcz. In 1926 the
factory was named Fabryka Artykułów Elektrotechnicznych
(Electrotechnical Product Factory). The company was confiscated by Nazi
Germany in 1939. After WW II the electro-technical company restarted
under supervision of the Central Board of the Metal Industry, and in
1956 the Central Board of Teletechnical Industry
"Unitra". It became a state controlled company. They produced the first
portable transistor radio in Poland and became the major manufacturer
of radios. In 1966 the company was renamed Unitra Eltra Zaklady
(Radio Factory) In 1998 Eltra was bought by the Scandinavian
capital group LEXEL, a branch of Schneider Electric.
Elda-Elektrotechnika was founded in 1957 in Szczecinek. The company was specialized in a full range of electrical accessories for residential and commercial buildings. In 1999 Elda was acquired by Schneider Electric. In 2003 the two Polish Schneider Electra subsidiaries merged and became Elda-Eltra Elektrotechnika S.A. (Spółka Akcyjna = public limited company).
|Kontakt Simon SA. In 1921
representatives of Polish industry and industrial banks founded Spółka
Akcyjna Przemysłu Elektrycznego (Electrical Industry Joint Stock
Company) in Czechowice. They produced lightning and signaling
equipment, measuring instruments, fuses and switches. After WW II the
range of electric accessories was enlarged further.
In 1994 the company was transformed intro a state owned joint stock company, named Fabryka Sprzetu Elektrotechnicznego (Electrotechnical Equipment Factory) "Kontakt SA". In 2003 shares were sold to the Italian company Urmet Domus and the Spanish group Simon Holding. The company, specialized in electrical installation equipment is renamed Kontakt-Simon SA in 2005.
|Ospel S.A. Founded in 1953 in
Wierbka. Manufacturer of domestic electrical accessories. In the past
they have also produced a range of cast iron heavy duty (3-phase)
|Plas-Rol Sp.J.*. Founded in 1983 in
Lotyń. Production and sale of electrical installation products. Trade
* spółka jawna = partnership in which partners share equally in both responsibility and liability.
|Timex Sp.J. founded in 1983 by
Stanisława and Andrzej Tomczak, JONEX Sp.z.o.o.Sp.K.*,
founded in 1988 by Adam and Teresa Jonczyk, and Elektrotaaj S.C.*
(Adam and Teresa Jonczyk, and Andrzej and
Stanisława Tomczak) are three closely related companies in Szczecinek.
Timex produces electrical installation material. Jonex started as manufacturer of plastic products. Both companies founded Elektrotaaj, wholesale of electrical accessories and electrical household goods.
* Sp.z.o.o.Sp.K. = Spółka z ograniczoną odpowiedzialnością Spółka komandytowa = Limited liability and limited partnership company. S.C = Spółka cywilna = another type of limited liability company, comparable to SARL (Société à Responsabilité Limitée) in France.
|D i g i t a l M u s e u m o f||P l u g s a n d S o c k e t s|