|Manufacturers of plugs
in AR, AU, BR, CL, NZ, ZA
logos and information are restricted to companies and brands of
that is shown in the museum.
Countries and manufacturers are listed in alphabetical order.
The following standards for domestic plugs and sockets are used in:
Argentina: Australasian and Europlug; Australia and New Zealand: Australasian;
Brazil: North American flat blade, Europlug and IEC 60906-1; Chile: Italian;
South Africa: BS 546, Europlug, CEE 7/17 and IEC 60906-1.
Abbreviations of types of business entities are explained at the end of the list.
Sources: catalogs and internet sites of the given companies and Wikipedia.
® shown logos are registered trademarks of given companies or brands. Logos may not be copied, except for strict encyclopedic purposes in relation to plugs and sockets.
|Cambre SA. Materiales Eléctricos y
Founded in 1947 by the electronic
engineer Carlos Alberto Cambre in Buenos Aires. Cambre makes electric
accessories and lighting equipment for domestic use, offices and
|Richi Productos Eleéctricos SA.
Founded in 1939 by an
European immigrant (details have not been found). Production of
electrical outlets and related
accessories started in the 1970s in Richi's own industrial plant in the
town of Villa Madero, Buenos Aires Province.
|Arlec Australia Pty. Founded in the
1940s as Anderson & Roundl Electronic Equipment, later renamed to
|Clipsal. In 1907 Alfred Edward
Gerard started the Gerard & Goodman electrical merchandising
business in Adelaide. Among others the company imported electrical
conduits. To facilitate coupling of conduits that had different
diameters Alfred Gerard
developed an adjustable, one size "clips all" metal conduit
1921. The demand for this fitting grew steadily and Gerard Industries
moved in 1936 to a new factory in the Adelaire suburb Bowden. Conduits,
switches, plugs and other electrical accessories became known as
Clipsal range of products.
Four generations Gerard: Alfred, Geoff, Robert and Simon have guided the company to market leader in electrical accessories in Australia. In 2003 Clipsal became part of Schneider Electric SE.
|ELMACO Industriess Ltd. (ELectrical
MAnufacturing COmpany). Manufacture of plastic
products and electronics was
founded by Ted Szental, a Polish refugee that immigrated to Australia
shortly after WW II. The company was acquired by F&T Industries
(formerly Felt and Textiles of Australia) in the 1970s. Its name
changed to Acmil
Ltd in 1976. Manufacture of ELMACO electrical accessories ceased
in the late 1970s
|HPM Industries . In 1918 Berthold
Hermann started producing of casein, a plastic derived from milk
protein. In 1920 Hermann, Hatfield and Hagen founded a button moulding
business in Sydney. In 1927 Hermann sold the company and shorty
thereafter he started the electrical components company HPM (Hermann
Plastics Manufacturing). The company grew to one of the largest
supplier to the electrical industry in Australia. In 2007 HPM was
acquired by the French Legrand Group.
Around 1919 Frederic L. Cook started manufacturing
conduit fittings. Late 1927 Cook and Williams Pty. Ltd. purchased
patents and plant
for the manufacture of pressed metal conduit fittings, lamp holders and
switches. In 1932 Ring-Grip started producing molded electrical
accessories, including plugs with three flat pins, a model designed in
1914 by Harvey
Hubbell. In 1937 it became the Australian standard 10A plug.
In the 1960s to ’80s the ownership of Ring Grip changed several times: Australian United Corporation (1966), ELMACO (1968), James Hardie - later renamed Wilco Electrical Pty. Ltd. (late 1970s), B.W.D Industries Ltd. (1987), and Clipsal (1988). Meanwhile Ring-Grip acquired Sturdee Electricals (1967) and a New Zealand company manufacturing Ring-Grip products under license. In 2019 Ringgrip trade name is used by the Kong Kong based electrical trading company GSM International Pty. Ltd. to market Chinese made home appliances in Australia.
I am grateful to Philip Mawditt for detailed information about Ring Grip.
|Sturdee Electricals Pty. Ltd.
produced Bakelite electrical accessories in
Johns Plastic Pty, Ltd. (subsidiaries of Johns Hydraulics Ltd.). In the 1950s and '60s Johns-Sturdee was based in Richmond, Victoria, Australia. In 1967 the company was acquired by Ring Grip. The Sturdee trade name faded into obscurity in the 1970s.
companies which material
is represented in the museum collection.
Energo Products, made in Australia. Found on a Bakelite, AS/NZS 3112 10A socket,
see "About the origin of Australasian type plugs and sockets".
Garnite. It is likely but not proven that Garnite was an Austrian company.
The name has been found on a Bakelite 2-way multi-plug (see image no. 4).
Marcolite, Made in Australia. Found on Bakelite 10A plug (see image no.11).
|Alumbra SA, Materiais Elétricos.
Founded in 1963. Manufacturer of switches, sockets, plugs, lamps and
materials for low voltage electrical applications. Headquarters are
located in São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo.
|Pial Legrand GL Eletrico-Eletrónicos
Ltda. Founded in 1948, Pial became a prominent Brazilian
manufacturer of low voltage switches, sockets and plugs. In 1977 the
company was acquired by the French Legrand Group and is now part of
Legrand no Brasil, based in São
|Steck Indústria Elétrica Ltda.
Founded in 1975; manufacturer of electrical materials for residential,
industrial applications. Headquarters are based in São Paulo;
in Argentina and Mexico. Products are available in most Latin American
From 2011 Steck is a subsidiary of French company Schneider Electric SE.
|Rema Comercial e Industrial Ldta. In 1940 José Rittig Beer founded S.A.C.I., the Industria Nacional de Articulos Eléctricos Rema S.A.C.I., the first Chilean company in its field. In 1945 his son Rolf Rittig Singer became partner in business. In 1991 the current owners took charge of the company, changing its name to Rema Comercial y Industrial Ltda. Trade names Rema and Rittig are both used. Factory is now based in Lampa, Santiago, Chile.|
European companies have sales and/or production facilities in Chile.
|Bticino Chile Ltda. Details are
given at 'Italian
|Gewiss Chile Ltda. Details are
given at "Italian
|Schneider Electric Chile SA. Details are given at "French manufactueres".|
|Elto Electrical Accessories.
Since 2000 Elto is a brand name of the CDB Goldair group, distributors
of electrical, lighting and appliances, based in Auckland.
The abbreviation CH CH is commonly used for Christchurch, New Zealand.
the company have not been found. Given the location of the company,
Christchurch, it seems not unlikely that G&R has been acquired by,
or merged with PDL (see below).
|PDL Industries Ltd.
Plastic and Die Castings was founded in 1937, in Christchurch. In 1957
Robert Stewart (see Urwin, below) bought the company and renamed it PDL
Industries. In the nearly 40 years of his leadership the company grew
considerably. Factories have been established in several countries,
including Malaysia. From 2003 PDL was sold to Schneider Electric.
|URLWIN. In 1936 Harry Urlwin started production of moulded equipment and plastic products in Christchurch, NZ. Urlwin sent Robert Stewart to Britain to learn plastics designs. In 1947 Stewart became a designer at Plastics and Diecasting Limited in Christchurch.|
|Ausma Trading Pty. Founded in 2005.
Active in manufacturing, importing and distribution of electrical
accessories, circuit breakers and lighting products for industrial and
Ausma is based in Isando, Kempton Park (near Johannesburg) and in Cape Town.
|CBi-electric low voltage group. The
foundation of CBI was established in 1949 as a joint venture within the
then Heinemann Electric Company in Trenton, New Jersey, USA. After a
merger with Fuch Electrical Industry, a new company called Circuit
Breaker Industries was created in 1986, The low voltage group of
CBi-electric, based in Elandsfontein, Johannesburg, is now fully owned
by the South African company Reunert Ltd.
In 1918 John Ashworth Crabtree patented a Quick Make & Break
tumbler switch mechanism. A year later the J.A Crabtree & Co. Ltd.
was registered and production of switches started in Walsall, England.
Production of plugs, sockets and lampholders started soon thereafter.
In 1948 a factory was built in Springs, Gauteng province of South
Africa, to supply the specific needs of the South African market.
Later, David Crabtree, youngest son of the founder, became director of
the South African factory.
The Crabtree factory was sold in 1989 to the Electric Switchgear Department of Yelland Technology Holdings. In 1991 Yelland was taken over by Powertech, one of South Africa's leading suppliers of electrical and electronic equipment.
|Litemaster (Pty) Ltd. Information
about Litemaster on internet is limited, but
(1) Litemaster is based in Wadeville, Germiston-Gauteng; (2) the company existed already in the mid 1950s; (3) in 1991 both Litemaster and Crabtree became part of Powertech.
Some old and more recent Litemaster plugs have also the name EVERLITE.
|Procast Manufacturing (Pty) Ltd.
Founded in 1947 by Mr M.S. Hard in Maitland, Western Cape. The company
is now run by his daughter Mrs Sally Henstock. Procast is specialized
in die-casting, plastic moulded, steel pressed and brass manufactured
components. The electrical catalogue shows conduit accessories, plugs,
sockets and lampholders.
|Snapper. Part of Jasco Electronics
Holding Ltd. The Snapper Brand has been associated with Lumex and
Clipsal South Africa. In the past Snapper made plugs with clear or
coloured tops that simply snapped together without
screws; the two halves were locked with plastic lugs. This breakable
system has been abandoned and more modern Snapper plugs have a screw to
fix the two plug halves. Snapper is based in Pinetown, Durban.
of corporate forms by jurisdiction *
Ltd (New Zealand):
Private company limited by shares. (≈ plc or Ltd [UK]).
Ltda (Brazil, Chile):
Limitada. Private company limited by shares. (≈ Ltd
Sociedad de responsabilidad limitada (≈ Ltd [UK]).
Pty (Australia, South Africa):
Proprietary limited company, a form of privately held
company in Australia and South Africa that is either
unlimited (Pty) or limited (Pty Ltd).
SA (Argentina, Chile):
Sociedad Anónima . Private limited company (≈ plc
Sociedada Anõnima (Brazil) (≈ plc [UK]).
SE: (European Economic Union):
Societas Europea. Public company registered in
accordance with corporate laws of the European Union.
* See Wikipedia for details.
|D i g i t a l M u s e u m o f||P l u g s a n d S o c k e t s|