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of plugs and sockets
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Logos and short notes on history of German manufacturers of plugs and sockets. The list is primarily based on items in the museum collection. Many more companies and brands have existed. The list will be expanded gradually.


1. Manufacturers of plugs and sockets, listed in alphabetical

     A - D      E - J      K - L      M - R      S - T      V - W

2. Companies that only made steatite or Bakelite parts.

3. Unknown companies, represented in museum collection.

4. List of frequently used abbreviations.

• Information given by Reiner Hahn and Peter Martin.
• Bezugsquellenverzeichnis der Deutschen Elektroindustrie,
  1937, and Die Deutsche Elektro-Industrie (1959 address list).
• Lists of MPAD and DAMW Bakelite press marks (link).
• Internet sites of companies.
• German Radiomuseum site.
• Wikipedia and other relevant sites.

® shown logos are registered trademarks of given companies and brands.
Logos may not be copied, except for strict encyclopedic purposes in relation to plugs and sockets.

General notes on history of German manufacturers:

Production of electrical accessories for domestic use started in the late 19th century with lamp fittings and switches. In the first decade of the 20st century, when supply of electricity to homes, offices and workshops was no longer exceptional, new entrepreneurs started production of electrical accessories, while others exchanged less profitable business for more promising prospects.

About half of the companies listed below were founded between 1910 and 1930. Production was boosted when the Beakeland patents expired in 1926-'27. The electro-technical industry was of major importance to German economy. Products were exported to many countries around the world.

Before WW II Berlin, Sachsen/Thüringen, Westfalen/Rheinland and Franken (Nürnberg) were hot spots for electro-technical companies.

After WW II companies in the Soviet occupation zone were expropriated and severely hit by reparations. Equipment has been shipped to the Soviet Union. Companies that survived became state-owned VEB's. After German reunification, most facilities for production of domestic electrical accessories have been closed.

Production of plugs and sockets has also been changed elsewhere. For quite a number of manufacturers it was no longer profitable to rely on relative simple products. Alternative options were:
(1) exploring new markets, as automotive and communication industry, (2) focusing on niche markets of special types of plugs and sockets, or (3) outsourcing production to countries with cheap labour force.


Logos MPAD
Information of manufacturers and trademarks
ABL logos
ABL. Albert Büttner founded in 1923 the company Albert Büttner Bayerische Elektrozubehör AG in Lauf (near Nürnberg, Bayern). For a while the shortened name ABL BEZEG has also been used. In 1925 Büttner designed an earthed plug and socket for domestic use that was a forerunner of the Schuko plug (see Origin of Schuko).

In 1986 ABL merged with Sursum Elektrizitäts Gesellschaft, Leyhausen & Co. in Nürnberg. The company name changed to ABL-SURSUM.
Adt AG logo
Gebrüder Adt AG. The company stems from Pappmachéfabrik Adt (manufacturer of paper mâché products), founded in 1839 by Peter III Adt, in Ensheim, near Saarbrücken. The heydays of paper mâché processing ended when Bakelite and comparable resins were developed. Eduard Franz Adt (grandson of Peter III) widened the product range in the early 1900s by using new resins as Lackit, Adit and Australit (patented by Adt). Because of good insulating properties, they were also used for insulated conduits and electro-technical accessories.
After WW I the Saar region was controlled by France; the Adt factory was expropriated in 1919. A part of the Adt family moved to Hessen. Production of electro-technical material restarted in Wächtersbach (Hessen) and Gross-Auheim (near Hanau). After reunification of Saarland with Germany in 1935, Adt returned to Ensheim. After WW II, Saarland became again under French administration, until 1957. Among others for economic (currency) reasons the company was unable to restore its market position. The electro-technical expertise was taken over by Hager in 1955 (see below). Adt's facilities in Ensheim are still in use by the Hager Group.

AEG logos

Design 1907, '08, '12 logos: Peter Behrens
Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft AG. Emil Rathenau founded in 1883 the Deutsche Edison-Gesellschaft für angewante Elektrizität in Berlin. He had acquired licenses to use some of Edison's lamp patents. In 1887 the company expanded its production range and adopted the AEG name. Chief engineer Dolivo-Dobrowolsy developed a three-phase electric power system; AEG became a leading company in know-how and equipment for electrical power engineering and transport (see also Kabelwerk Oberspree).
After WW II AEG lost many factories because they were situated in the Russian occupation zone. The other parts of AEG moved to Frankfurt am Main. In 1967 Telefunken (radio, TV) merged with AEG.
Telefunken was sold in 1984 and two years later the other parts of AEG were acquired by Daimler-Benz. In 1994 the household division was sold to Electrolux, who now owns the rights to use and license the AEG trade name.

Bachmann logo

Bechmann GmbH & Co. KG. In 1947 Josef Bachmann founded the Bachmann KG sales agency in Stuttgart. Son Dieter Bachmann started production its own connectors. The company was renamed Bachmann GmbH & Co. KG in 1979. Production in Asia started in 1994. The family-led Bachmann Group has now centres for production and development of home and office electronic components and systems in Germany, Romania and China.
Bals logos

Bals Elektrotechnik GmbH. Founded in 1957 by Günter Bals and his wife Elisabeth. The company, based in Kirchhundem-Albaum, Westfalen, has specialized in plugs and outlets for heavy duty and outdoor applications. From 1968 IEC 60309 ('CEE Norm') became a dominant range of pluggable connectors. More recently Bals produces also connectors to charge electric vehicles. 
Bender & Wirth logos
Bender & Wirth GmbH & Co. In 1883 Hermann Bender and Carl August Wirth started in Kierspe, Westfalen, production of electro-technical articles including sockets for the lighting industry. Nowadays the company produces various types of lamp fittings for lower voltage lamps including LED 's.
Berker logos
Gebrüder Berker GmbH & Co. KG. Robert and Hugo Berker founded in 1919 the Spezialfabrik für elektrotechnische Apparate in Schalksmühle, Westfalen. In 1970 three electro-technical companies, Berker, Gira and Jung have commonly founded a subsidiary company, Insta, that develops and produces LED illumination and matching accessories according to KNX standard for offices and works. The Hager Group (see below) acquired Berker in 2010.
Walter Berger logos
Willy Berger elektro-mechanische Werkstätten in Beelitz, Brandenburg. Date of founding is unknown, but mentioned in a 1962 DAMW list of manufacturers that used Phenoplast and Aminoplast resins. Berger used the trade name BEMA. The company is not mentioned in lists of companies that were involved in Soviet reparation schemes. It is likely that Berger has closed its electro-mechanical work during or at the end of the DDR. Logo left has been found on Bakelite 220 Volt plugs, logo right on a Bakelite 42 Volt concentric plug and socket.
Broghammer logo
Gebrüder Broghammer. Manufacturer of plugs in Schramberg, Baden-Würtemberg. The company had an MPAD mark in 1938 and is listed in the 1959  Deutsche Elektro-Industrie list. More recent information has not been found.
Brunquell logo
2H Brunnquell elektrotechnische Apparate. Founded in 1913 in Bebra-Sondershausen, Thüringen by Oskar Brunnquell and his wife. Later, Brunquell merged with Lindner & Co. in Sondershausen (see below). In 1946 the company was expropriated and factory equipment was confiscated by the Soviet Union for reparations. In 1948 Brunnquell became a part of VEB Elektroinstallation Sondershausen (see below). The same year Karl-Heinz Brunnquell, son of founder, fled to Bavaria and restarted Brunnquell Elektro-Geräte-Bau GmbH in Ingolstadt. The company merged in 2012 with Heinrich Kopp GmbH (see below) and moved to Kahl am Main. The name Brunnquell disappeared.
Busch-Jaeger logos
Busch-Jaeger Elektro GmbH. Hans-Curt Jäger (Jaeger) founded in 1887 in Schalksmühle a company that made metal fittings for electric lamps with Swan screw fitting. At the same time in Lüdenscheid Julius Bergmann and Friedrich Wilhelm Busch started manufacturing metal odds and ends for uniforms and shortly thereafter also parts for electrical accessories. In 1926 the Vereinigte elektrotechnische Fabrieken F.W. Busch und Gebrüder Jaeger AG was founded. The company was the first that was allowed to produce Schuko plugs and sockets (patented by Siemens). Shortly after WW II the company designed for a while hot plates for cooking and electrical radiators, only to survive. In 1969 Busch-Jaeger GmbH became a part of the Swiss Brown, Boveri & Cie, AG. In 1988 BBC merged with the Swedish Asea and became ABB.
Buschhaus logo
Willy Buschhaus KG, Fabrik elektrischer Erzeugnisse. Lüdenscheid, Westfalen. Details about the company have not been found. Bakelite plugs in the museum collection suggest that the Buschhaus company was at least active in the 1950s.
Dr Deisting logo
Dr. Deisting & Co. GmbH. Dr. Deisting founded in 1909 in Kierspe (Westfalen) the Spezialfabrik elektrotechnischer Installations-Apparate und Isolierstoff-Presswerk. The company was renown for high quality Bakelite plugs and sockets, but was unable to make the switch to more modern thermosetting polymers and had to close in 1975.
Desco logo

Desco Werk, Seger and Angermeyer in Ittersbach, Baden Württemberg. Manufacturer of insulated cables. Details about the company are unknown. The most recent patent that has been found dates back to 1982. The IEC 60320 C7 plug in the museum collection has probably been made more recently.
Düwi logo

Düwi GmbH: see REV Ritter GmbH.
VEB Elektroinstallation Annaberg logo
Elektroinstallation Annaberg (VEB EIA) in Annaberg, Sachsen. The Elektrische Fabriken Annaberg, founded in 1921 by AEG were expropriated in 1948 and became VEB EIA. After German reunification they were bought by ABB Stotz-Kontakt, but closed in 2001. A few years later it restarted as Elektro Innovation Annaberg GmbH, wholesale of various types of circuit breakers.
VEB Elektroinstallation Ruhla logo
Elektroinstallation Ruhla (VEB ERU) in Ruhla, Thüringen. EIR may refer to the same company as ERU. It is likely that shortly after WW II Storch & Stehmann (see below) was incorporated in the Volkseigener Betrieb ERU. What has happened with VEB ERU / EIR after German reunification is not clear.
Ellinger & Geissler logo 54
Ellinger & Geissler, Fabrik elektrotechnischer Bedarfsartikel. In 1900 (or 1905) founded by Otto Ellinger and Max Geissler in Tharandt, near Dresden. The company moved soon to nearby Dorfhain. They used the trade name Elgesit. In 1946 the company was expropriated and became the VEB Elektro- und Radiozubehör Dorfhain ELRADO, which was included in 1969 in VEB Kombinat Elektronische Bauelemente Dorfhain. In 1991, a part of the VEB became Sächsische Elektronik-Werke GmbH in Klingenberg (later: AB Elektronik Sachsen GmbH), manufacture of electromechanical products for the automotive industry.
Carl Ernst logo

Carl Ernst, Fabrik elektrotechnischer Steckkontakte. Founded in Berlin in the 1910s or earlier. Details have not been found. The company probably didn't survived the 1929-'32 depression years.
Frankl & Kirchner logos
Frankl & Kirchner GmbH & Co. KG, Fabrik für Elektromotoren und elektrische Apparate, was founded in 1886 by L. Frank and Wilhelm Kirchner in Mannheim. In 1891, Frankl became regional sales representative of Siemens & Halske. Documentation about activities of the company in the first half of the 20st century have not been found. It seems likely that Frankl & Kirchner moved in 1950 to Schwetzingen, Baden-Württemberg and was renamed EFKA, which is now a manufacturer of motors and controls for industrial sewing machines.
Felmas logo *
Felmas. Gustav Schortmann started in 1868, in Leipzig, the manufacture of parts for pianoforte musical instruments. From ca. 1900 Gustav's son Oskar was in charge. In 1914 Schortmann & Sohn switched to production of parts for ignition mechanisms of bombs (source). Shortly after WW I the Fabrik elektrische Spezialartikel und Metallwaren Schortmann was established. The acronym Felmas was chosen as trade name. In the 1930s it was one of German market leaders for plugs and appliance connectors, but after WW II the company was severely hit by Soviet Union reparations. New Felmas installation materials have been made, but the successful pre-war years were definitely over. Registration of the Gustav Schortmann & Sohn ended in 2009.
* Felmas did not had an MPAD code; Bakelite casts were made by Bisterfeld & Stolting.

GEMA logo

GEMA. Gesellschaft für elektroakustische und mechanische Apparate mbH. Company founded in 1934 in Berlin by Paul-Günther Erbslöh and Hans-Karl Freiherr von Willisen. They were pioneers in developing new sonar and radar techniques, which found large scale usage at the German Navy. The company did not survived military actions at the end of WW II.
The museum has a plug with GEMA logo shown left. It has no other marks that could confirm that it has been made by the above mentioned company (see image  No. 32)
GIRA logos
Richard Giersiepen, Elektrotechnische Fabrik. Richard Giersiepen and his brother Gustav founded in 1905 the Fabrik von Apparaten für elektrische Beleuchtung in Wichlinghausen, now part of Wuppertal. Production started with tumble switches; other electrical accessories for domestic use followed soon. The company moved in 1910 to close by Radevormwald and was first renamed Gebrüder Giersiepen and in 1920 Elektrotechnische Industrie Giersiepen; the logo with E and I (Gothic I) was introduced. In 1964 company name was shortened to Giersiepen Radevormwald and the Gira logo was introduced. Gira is one of the founders of the Insta compay; see Berker for details. Gira is still a family-owned company.
Grimma logos

1960s                   from 1992

Elektroschaltgeräte Grimma. Electro-technical company Walther-Werke (see there), founded in 1897 in Grimma, was expropriated by SMAD (Soviet Military Administration in Germany). In 1952 the company was registered VEB Elektroschaltgeräte Grimma, that became part of VEB keramische Werke Hermsdorf. See Sachsen Archives for more details (in German). In the German Democratic Republic years the company was in particular active in manufacturing heavy duty (380V and above) switchgear and electrical accessories.
In 1992, after the German reunification, Elektroschaltanlagen Grimma GmbH restarted production of appliances for energie distribution, railway, hospitals and automation.
Hager logos

Hager Group. Peter Hager and his sons Oswald and Hermann founded in 1955 Hager oHG, elektrotechnische Fabrik in Ensheim (Saarbrücken), Saarland. The Hager Group consists of a large number of electro-technical companies and business firms, and operates as European Company SE (Societas Europaea). Hager has manufacturers in seven European countries, India and China. They focus on energy distribution, electrical wiring and building automation. Headquarters of the still family owned company are based in Blieskastel, Saarland.
Herth & Buss logo

Herth & Buss. Company founded in 1925 by Philipp Herth and Jakob Buss in Langen (near Offenbach, Hessen). Three years later the company moved to Offenbach. Manufacturing electric parts for cars became core business, but given the Bakelite 2-pin plug in the collection, accessories for domestic use have also been marketed*. The company, renamed Herth + Buss Fahrzeugteile GmbH & Co. KG, is now based in Heusenstamm (near Offenbach).
* plug casts were made by Hugo Burgmaier.
Hirschmann logo
Richard Hirschmann GmbH & Co. In 1924 Richard Hirschmann started production of simple, single wire plugs, now known as banana plugs in Esslingen (Württemberg). Soon domestic 220V plugs were added to the product line. From 1933 Hirschmann shifted to development and production of various types of antennas for receiving and transmission of radio and television signals. In 1997 the company was was acquired by Rheinmetall and later by a British investor who split the company in three parts. Hirschmann GmbH was closed in 2004.
Holzer logo

W. Holzer & Co. KG. Austrian engineer Walter Holzer founded in the 1950s the Fabrik elektrischer Schaltgeräte in Meersbug (Bodensee). Production of switches, plugs etc. for domestic appliances was not restricted to German market. Holzer had also branches in Italy  and Switzerland to serve local markets. Further details are unknown, but the company does not exist anymore.
VEB IKA logo
N04 VEB für Installationen, Kabel und Apparate (IKA), was a conglomerate of companies founded in 1948; domicile in Halle, later in Leipzig. IKA was dissolved in 1953, but the trade- name remained in use for plugs and sockets that were made elsewhere, among others by VEB EIS and VEB EIR (see above). Both Brunnquell and Lindner were incorporated in EIS. Plugs and sockets made in Sondershausen had a flash symbol. After German reunification EIS was bought by Ahlstrom and renamed ELSO; in 1999 acquired by Schneider Electric.
Erich Jaeger logos
Erich Jaeger GmbH & Co. KG. Founded in Bad Homburg, Hessen, in 1927 by Erich Jäger. Started making domestic plugs and other electrical accessories. The trade name Isotherm  has been used for appliance connector plugs. Production shifted to connector systems for motorcycle and automotive industry. Expanded production facilities to Hong Kong, Czech Republic and Mexico. German factory is now based in Friedberg, Hessen.
Albrecht Jung logos

Albrecht Jung GmbH & Co. KG. In 1912 founded by Albrecht Jung in Schalksmühle, Westfalen. Family owned manufacturer of a large range of electrical accessories for domestic use and control of electric systems in houses and offices. Jung, Berker and Gira founded the Insta company; see Berker for details.
Karl Jung logo

Karl Jung Electrotechnische Fabrik GmbH & Co. KG. Founded mid 1930s in Stuttgart.
Later continued as Karl Jung Electric GmbH in Bietigheim-Bissingen (about 20 km north of Stuttgart. Manufacture and sale of electro-technical installation material and accessories as per German and all foreign standards.
Kabelwerk Oberspree logo

Kabelwerk Oberspree. Emil Rathenau, founder of AEG, established a separate work, Kabelwerk Oberspree (KWO), for production of electric cables. In 1897 a new plant was build in Berlin Oberschöneweide. In particular cables for long distance transport of electricity were produced; later also coax-cable for transmission of radio and television signals. After WW II, production resumed, among others, with extension cables and Stromfix cable reels. In 1952 KWO and other DDR cable manufacturers were combined in VEB Kabelwerk Oberspree. After the reunification of Germany VEB's were dismantled. In 1992 KWO Kabel GmbH was acquired by the British Insulated Callender's Cables Ltd.
Martin Kaiser logos
Kaiser Elektrotechnische Fabrik. Founded by Martin Kaiser in 1939. The manufacturer of plugs, sockets, extension cables, screw type lamp fittings and installation material is based in Hochstadt am Main, Oberfranken / Bayern.
Kalthoff logos

Kalthoff GmbH. Founded in 1931 by Alfred Kalthoff in Schalksmühle. Started to produce switches and sockets made of porcelain and Bakelite. In 1951 they started production of solid rubber plugs. The company has specialized in production of shock, watertight and/or heat resistant plugs, connectors and cabling solutions. The company is still family-owned.
Kautt-Bux logos

Kaut & Bux. Founded in 1919 as Spezialfabrik für Kollektoren und Geräteschalter in Vaihingen, near Stuttgart, now based in Herrenberg, Baden-Württemberg. Production of the patented moulded commutators (part of electro motor) started in 1926. In 1968 a joint venture was agreed with the Slovenian company Kolektor Idrija. In 2002 Kautt & Bux became a part of the Kolektor Group; five years later the company was renamed Kolektor Kautt & Bux GmbH. Besides commutators K&B also produces a variety of thermoset materials, among others appliance connectors.
Kleinhaus logo

Hermann Kleinhaus. Details are unknown. HKL Bakelite plug in the collection is connected to the extension cord of a late 1920s Siemens-Schuckertwerke porcelain quadruple outlet (nr. 15). Because Siemens produced its own plugs at that time, it is questionable whether the HKL plug dated back to the late 1920s too.
Kontakt AG logo

Kontakt AG, Fabrik elektrotechnischer Spezialartikel: see Stotz-Kontakt.
Kopp logos
Heinrich Kopp. Company was founded in 1927 by Heinrich Kopp in Reinheim, Hessen. Production started with switches, mainly for export. In 1934 the company moved to Sonneberg, Thüringen. Use of Bakelite casts offered the possibility to expand production considerably. After WW II the company was expropriated without any compensation. Heinrich Kopp left Eastern Germany and resumed business in Bayern. In 1956 Kopp build new production facilities in Kahl am Main. Branches were founded in several countries. After several reorganizations, Heinrich Kopp GmbH is now part of the Saudi Arabian Alfanar Group.
Leopold Kostal logos
Kostal GmbH & Co. KG. In 1912 Leopold Kostal founded in Lüdenscheid the Verarbeitungsstätten für technische Isolation (Processing facilities for technical insulation). Production included plugs and switches. In 1926 the company started manufacturing products for the automotive industry. After WW II Kostal had to wait until 1947 to resume production. In 1973 the first overseas plant in Mexico was founded, several others followed later. Nowadays Kostal focuses on products for automobile applications; subsidiary companies are founded for connector systems and solar electronics. Kostal is still a family-owned business.
Krania logos
Krania. Manufacturing company of plugs and sockets has been founded in the 1960s (?) in Kranichfeld, Thüringen. Krania was probably a trade name part of the VEB Elektroinstallation Kranichfeld or VEB Kombinat Kabelwerk Oberspree. After the German reunification the company was renamed Krania-Kabel-Stecker Gmbh. Krania develops and produces pre-assembled power transmission plugs and cables.
Kugella logo
Kugella, formerly Max Roth GmbH. Fabrik für Elektro-Installationsgegenstände (electro- installation objects) in Mittelschmalkalden, Thüringen. The company was active in the 1920s -'30 according to an advertisement in Elektrotechnische Zeitung (Vol. 49, No. 42; 1928) and mention in the 1937 address list of German electro-technical companies. It is unknown whether the company has resumed production after WW II.
LEONI Draht logo

LEONI Draht GmbH. In 1917 three companies involved in Lyonese Wares* merged into Leonische Werke Roth-Nürnberg AG. In 1931 the company renamed Leonische Drahtwerke AG and started production of rubber sheathed cables. Production of power cords started in 1948. Company name was shortened to LEONI. Over the years many related companies have been taken over and subsidiaries were founded world wide. The automotive sector is nowadays the largest customer group.
* type of twined threads, originally used in embroidery, weaving and lace making, but
  also applied to metal wires.
Lindner logos
Lindner & Co. In 1902 Kurt Lindner took over a bankrupt manufacture of lamp fittings, switches and safety fuses in Jecha-Sondershausen, Thüringen and renamed the company Fabrik elektrotechnischer Nieder- und Hochspannungsapparate, shortened to Lindner & Co. Jecha Sondershausen. Later LJS merged with Brunnquell & Co. (see above).
In 1946 factory equipment was confiscated by the Soviet Union for reparations. In 1948 the company became part of VEB Elektroinstallation Sondershausen (see below). Kurt Lindner fled to Eggolsheim near Bamberg, Bayern where he had "tbought" in 1938 the electro-technical factory of Hugo Löbl Söhne (see below). Later, the company was renamed Lindner Licht and focused on safety-ceramic parts for lamps. Thomas Hoof Produktgesellschaft has taken over Lindner Licht in 2011.
Hugo Loebl Soehne logo
Löbl-Bamberg Hulorit logo

Elektrotechnische Fabrik Hugo Löbl Söhne GmbH. Hugo Löbl started In 1916 an electro-wholesale in Bamberg, Bayern. Together with his sons Sali, Fritz and Robert an electrical accessories manufacturing company was founded in 1924. They were one of the first to use a Bakelite-like resin, under the trademark "Hulorit", for production of plugs, lamp sockets and wiring devices. The Jewish company Hugo Löbl Söhne was confiscated in 1938 by Nazi Germany. The company was "sold" to Lindner & Co. in Jecha-Sondershausen (see above) and renamed to Lindner & Co., Abteilung (division) Hulorit.
Soon after the Kristallnacht (9-10 Nov. 1938) Fritz and Robert managed to escape to England, where they founded Loblite Electric Ltd in 1939. Sali fled to Ecuador.
Sources: Juden in Bamberg (pages 273-276) and We were Europeans (pages 20-21,66 and 94).
Lohmann - Welschehold logos
Lohmann & Welschehold GmbH & Co. KG. Elektrotechnische Fabrik was founded in 1897 in Meinerzhagen, Westfalen. Manufacturer of electrical accessories. In 2006 L&W was taken over by S.Franzen GmbH & Co. KG, manufacture of metal and plastic parts in Solingen, Nordrhein-Westfalen. Production of plugs and sockets has ended.
Carl Friedrich Lübold logo
Carl Friedrich Lübold, Fabrik elektrotechnische Bedarfsartikel in Lüdenscheid, Westfalen.
The only information found on internet seems to be related to company products made during WW II. C.F. Lübold is no longer mentioned in the 1954 list of MPAD molding marks.
Maehler & Kaege logos
Maehler & Kaege. Hugo Maehler and Wilhelm Kaege founded in 1907 the Elektrotechnische Spezialfabrik AG in Ingelheim am Rhein (north of Mainz). The company offered a range of lamps for use outdoors and (petro)chemical industry. Furthermore concentric and lockable plugs and sockets. From the 1970s M&K is oriented to electrical connectors and cables  for automotive industry . Production and logistics moved to Brno, Czech Republic. The Nieder-Ingelsheim work closed in 2007. In 2013 the M&K Group was acquired by the Dutch private equity fund Fields Group.
Mennekes logo

Mennekes Elektrotechnik GmbH & Co. KG. Founded in 1935 by Aloys Mennekes in Kirchhundem, Sauerland. In 1949 the company's aluminium foundry produced the first one-piece plugs. Plastic moulding production started 1957. Mennekes focuses on industrial plugs and socket (IEC 60309 and Schuko) and more recently electric mobility. Branches in over 90 countries have been set up. Mennekes is still a family owned company.
Merten logos
Merten GmbH. The Merten brothers Ernst, August and Emil founded in 1906 the Gebrüder Merten Gummersbach (GMG) company in Windhagen-Gummersbach, Rheinland. Initially electrical installation components were produced. In 1926 Merten started to focus on plugs and sockets. In the 1930s Merten Bakelite press facilities have also been used for very different  products. 'Merit' was among other used for photo and laboratory applications. From 1985 the range of products was enlarged with electronic accessories for buildings. In 2000 intelligent control devices were added. In 2006 the company was acquired by Schneider Electric.
N&L logo

N&L Elektrotechnik GmbH. Founded in 1983 as business enterprise in Karlstein, Bayern. Production of N&L plugs, sockets and track wiring system started in 1992 in a new factory in Elterlein (Erzgebirge), Sachsen.
Nostitz and Koch logo

Nostitz & Koch, Fabrik elektrischer Apparate in Chemnitz, Sachsen. It has not been found when Nostitz and Koch started manufacturing switches, plug and transformers, but  advertisements indicate that it must be before 1920. Correspondence kept in archives of the German federal state of Saxony show that Nostitz and Koch still existed in 1947. It is likely that either the company was expropriated and became part of a VEB, or the company was dismantled and equipment has been transported to the Soviet Union for war reparations.
Oger logo

Oger. The electro-technical company of Felix Hofmann in Berlin-Charlottenburg used the trademark Oger. It is unknown when the company was founded (1920s or earlier ?). Trade name Oger is listed in a 1937 address list of German electro-technical companies. It is unknown whether Hofmann was back in business after WW II.
PEHA logos
87 Paul Hochköpper GmbH & Co. KG. In 1922 Paul Hochköpper and Otto Winkel founded the Fabrik elektrotechnischer Installations-Materialen in Lüdenscheid, Westfalen for production of switches, plugs, sockets etc. Trade name PEHA, based on his initials was introduced much later; PEHA logo in black an white shown left dated back to the 1950s. The company was acquired by Honeywell in 2010. PEHA works moved in 2015 from Lüdenscheid to Halver.
Heinrich Popp logo

Elektrotechnische Fabrik Popp & Co. Founded in 1930 by Heinrich Popp in Röhrenhof bei Berneck, Bayern. He started with production of ceramic switches and lamp sockets. From 1951 wall switches, cables and plugs were added. In 2008 Popp & Co. and Düwi launched the Z-wave communication standard for domotica.
Presto-Vedder logos
Presto-Vedder GmbH. In 1904 the Vedder brothers founded in Schalksmühle, Westfalen Gebrüder Vedder Fabrik elektrotechnischer Apparate, later renamed Presto-Vedder. The old GVS logo indicates that initially switches were the main product, but soon followed by sockets and plugs. The company is now based in Altena, Westfalen.
Rademacher logo

Rademacher GmbH. Ernst Rademacher was a electrical appliance retailer in Düsseldorf who started in 1914 a company that produced his own designs for industrial lighting hand and desk lamps. Some of his lamp designs are nowadays sought after by collectors. Schmidt Strahl (industrial, street and office lights) has acquired Rademacher GmbH in 2009.
The Bakelite cast of the museum plug has been made by Volkenrath & Co (see below).
REV Ritter logo  Duwi logo

REV Ritter GmbH. Founded in 1978 by Frank Ritter. Manufacturer and wholesale of electrical installation applications. Family business is based in Mömbris, Unterfranken region, Bayern. Central distribution is located in Thal-Ruhla, Thüringen. REV Ritter products are sold through DIY distribution warehouses. In 2009 Ritter incorporated the insolvent company Düwi, including Düwi subsidiaries in Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary.

Düwi GmbH, was founded in 1969 by Frank Düllmann. Düwi was based in Breckenfeld, Sauerland. Activities were comparable to REV Ritter. The parent company of Düwi -  the Reitz Gruppe - was declared bankrupt in 2009 and Düwi had to close also. The trade name Düwi remained as trade name, now owned by REV Ritter, for Z-wave domotica products.
Ridem logo

Ridem. Trade name used by the company of Richard Demmler's widow (Wwe), Fabrik für elektrotechnische Porzellan- und Isolierstoff-Apparate in Blechhammer (near Sonneberg), Thüringen. It is unknown when Richard has founded the company. A patent application for the plug in the museum collection dates back to 1950. Patent is submitted by Hugo Demmler in Blechhammer. Shortly after WW II companies in the DDR were expropriated and became parts of VEB's. What has happened with Ridem is not clear.
C & F Schlothauer and EAW logo
VEB Elektrische Fahrzeugausrüstung Ruhla logo
C. & F. Schlothauer GmbH. In 1868 Otto Schlothauer started in Ruhla, Thüringen production of metal parts used by makers of dresses, fashion accessories, wallets etc. From 1883 his sons Christoph and Friedrich took over daily management and the company was renamed C. & F. Schlothauer oHG. By adding a brass foundry, Bebrit press work and porcelain manufacture, the product range, and number of workers, grew considerably. Electro-technical materials for homes (switches, lamp sockets) and cars became important parts of business.
After WW II the Elektrowerk Schlothauer became a Soviet AG and was renamed Elektroarmaturenwerk Ruhla (EAW). In 1950 the company was given back to DDR authorities. Wiring and domestic electro-technical products became a part of VEB IKA. Parts for cars became VEB Elektrische Fahrzeugausrüstung Ruhla (EFR).

Scholz & Wenzel logo

Scholz & Wenzel, Kleinschmalkalden, Thüringen. Bakelite plugs in the collection, made by Scholz & Wenzel date back to the 1930s. The company is mentioned in list of manufacturers that were involved in Soviet Union reparations (1946). Other details about Scholz & Wenzel have not been found, but a 1960s-'70s appliance connector with Scholz & Wenzel logo and a TLG quality mark indicates that plug production has resumed after WW II.
Schulte elektrotechnik logo

Schulte Elektrotechnik GmbH & Co. KG. In 1964 Siegfried Schulte founded in Lüdenscheid a company for electrical accessories. Production started with motor, zero voltage and dead man's switches that made dangerous machines safer. Schulte focuses now on EVOline® switches, sockets, plugs etc. The remarkable flat Schuko plug was developed in 2010.
Max Schulze logo
Max Schulze. Fabrik elektrotechnische Spezialartikel in Meißen (Sachsen). When the company has been founded is unknown. The simple Bakelite plug in the collection suggests that the company was already active around 1930. Max Schulze is mentioned in a list of companies that were involved in Soviet Union reparations (1946).
Siemens logos

Siemens        Siemens-Schuckertwerke
& Halske                                             

Siemens AG. In 1847 Werner von Siemens and Johann Georg Halske founded the telegraph company Telegraphen-Bauanstalt von Siemens & Halske in Berlin. In 1866 Siemens invented the electrical generator, which was major breakthrough in electricity generation. In 1903 Siemens electrical engineering work was merged with the Nürnberger Elektrizität-AG Schuckert & Co. and became Siemens-Schuckertwerke (SSW). Siemens & Halske division specialized in communication engineering. Plugs and sockets have been made by Siemens, or by ABL on behalf of Siemens for domestic electrical appliances in the 1920s-'30s. The trade name Protos has also been used.
In 1966 Siemens & Halske, Siemens-Schuckertwerke and Siemens-Reiniger-Werke (medical applications) have been united into Siemens AG. Siemens is operating worldwide and is one of leading companies in electricity generation, health care equipment, transport systems etc.
SLF logos
   1950-1990             from 1993       

SLF. In the early 1910s Galkowski & Kielblock founded in Eberswalde, Brandenburg, a metal foundry that was specialized in producing equipment for ships, among other (flood)lights. After WW II the company was expropriated and became VEB Schiffsarmaturen- und Leuchtenbau Finow. They produced electro-installation material and lighting for ships, army and others that needed robust, watertight equipment. The company closed in 1990, but restarted three later, on a much smaller scale, as SLF Spezialgerät- und Leuchtenbau Finow GmbH, still in Eberswalde.
Spelsberg & Koring logo

Spelsberg & Koring GmbH, in Altroggenrahmede, Westfalen. Details are unlnown.
The S&K plug in the collection is a simple, not earthed model with round base (no. 18), without MPAD mark.
Franz Stauch logos
F(ranz) ST(auch) U(nterrodach)
Franz Stauch, Presswerk. The company has been founded in the 1930s in Unterrodach, Franken (northeast Bavaria). Franz Stauch is mentioned in the 1938 and 1954 address lists of electro-technical companies. His Bakelite plugs were commonly available in the 1950s. The company has also been found in a 1983 list of companies that had DIN 7728 certified duroplast press works. It is likely that the work has closed later in the 1980s (or 1990s?).
Storch & Stehmann logo
Storch & Stehmann elektrotechnische Metallwarenfabrik in Ruhla, Thüringen. It has not been found when the company was founded, but given the first, of many patents granted to Edmund Stehmann is will be not later than the early 1920s. Advertisements that appeared in the 1920s recommend lamp fittings, sockets, plugs and switches. In 1946 the company was confiscated for Soviet Russian reparations. What remained was probably incorporated in a VEB Elektroinstallation Ruhla (see above).
 Stotz, Stotz-Kontakt, ABB logos

          Stotz    Kontakt AG    Stotz-Kontakt 
ABB, from 1988
Stotz-Kontakt. In 1891 Moyé and Hugo Stotz founded the company Elektrotechnische Installationen in Mannheim. When Moyé left the company five years later it was renamed Stotz und Cie, Elektrizitätsgesellschaft. In 1918 Stotz became a subsidiary of the Swiss company Brown, Boveri Cie (BBC) and was renamed Stotz und Cie GmbH, Fabrik elektrischer Spezialapparate.
In 1930 Stotz merged with Kontakt AG, Fabrik elektrotechnischer Spezialartikel in Frankfurt am Main. A fire destroyed the Stotz-Kontakt work in 1939; a new factory was build in Heidelberg. In 1969 the company merged with the electro division of Busch-Jaeger. In 1988 the Heidelberg work renamed ABB (Asea Brown Boveri) Stotz-Kontakt GmbH.
Sursum Elektrizitäts Gesellschaft, Leyhausen & Co., founded by Wilhelm Leyhausen in Nürnberg. Date of founding has not been found, but it existed already in 1925. Sursum designed the first screw-in circuit breaker with electromagnetic tripping. In 1986 Sursum and ABL merged.
Thega-Kontakt logo
Thega-Kontakt GmbH. The Fabrikation und Vertieb elektrotschnische Installationartikel (Production and trade of electro-technical installation material) was founded in 1923 in Berlin-Kreuzberg. The Jewish business was confiscated by Nazi German authorities in 1938. It is not known whether the company has been renamed and taken over by others.
Thermometerwerk Geraberg logo

Thermometerwerk Geraberg. The company was founded in 1900 by Keiner, Schramm & Co. in Arlesberg, near Ilmenau, Thüringen. Early 1950s TWG became part of Kombinat VEB Werk für Technisches Glas Ilmenau. The VEB was splitt up in 1972 and renamed VEB Thermo- meterwerk Geraberg. In 1990 the, now independent, company was renamed to Geratherm Medical AG.
In the GDR it was common practice that VEB's produced the full range of necessary components, including thermometer contacts plugs (see images 19-20).
Georg Thiel Ruhla and Thiel & Schuchardt logos
    Georg Thiel Ruhla    Thiel & Schuchardt
Thiel & Schuchardt Metallwarenfabrik A.G.. The brothers Georg and Christian Thiel founded in 1862 a metal goods factory in Ruhla, Thüringen. In 1867 Georg and Christian separated. Christian started production of clocks (Ruhla Uhren).
Georg Thiel Metallwarenfabrik specialized in electrical accessories. He invented among others hook plugs and sockets. In the early 1910s August Schuchardt joined the company. In the 1930s the company focussed mainly on accessories related to lighting. It is unknown whether Thiel & Schuchardt survived World War II. If so, it became part of the Elektroarmaturenwerk Ruhla (EAW); see C. & F. Schlothaurer for details. The name Georg Thiel was not used anymore.
Von der Horst and VAUDEHA logos
Vaudeha Elektrotechnische Fabrik. Founded in Lüdenscheid by the von der Horst brothers in 1930s (?) Later renamed Vaudeha Electro GmbH. In 1975 the company was registered in Abbeyfeale, Co Limerick, Ireland. In 1981 Kostal Ireland GmbH was established at (possibly) the same address in Abbeyfeale. Vaudeha is no longer active, neither in Lüdenscheid, nor in Ireland. Company checks on internet suggest that Vaudeha has been taken over by Kostal.
Note that von der Horst appliance connectors exist that have two logos: VDH logo (left) and an MPM logo. These plugs have been made for 1960s EMPEEM irons, possibly a brand of Rowenta.
Logos of Vogtlandische Elektro-Industrie and VEB EIP

Vogtländische Elektro-Industrie, Spezialfabrik der Elektrotechnik in Plauen, Vogtland -  Sachsen. Probably founded in the 1920s by Mr. Süppel. The company was expropriated in 1946 and renamed Volkseigener Betrieb Plauen (VEB EIP). Two EIP logos have been found on two, nearly identical outlets. After German reunification the Vogtländische Elektroindustrie GmbH was privatized. The company had to close in 2007.
Voight & Haeffner and Prometeus logos 
Voigt & Haeffer     Prometheus
Voigt & Haeffner. In 1885 Jacob Staudt and Heinrich F. J. Voigt founded the company Staudt & Voigt in Frankfurt am Main for electrical installation material. Staudt left the company in 1890. His position was replaced by Adolf Haeffner. In 1891 the company renamed Voigt & Haeffner. In 1896 they founded a new division for electric cooking and heating appliances, named Chemisch-elektrische Fabrik Prometheus. V&H was well known for the high quality of its products. The part of V&H that manufactures installations that switches on/off electricity supply systems was acquired by Siemens AG in 1971. In 2003 the remaining part of V&H became member of the Norwegian Eltek Group and was renamed Eltek Deutschland GmbH. From 2015 Eltek is part of Delta Group, Taiwan.
Walther-Werke logo

Walther-Werke. In 1897 Ferdinand Walther, master locksmith, founded a craft business in Grimma, near Leipzig. Gradually he focussed on production of iron cast control boxes and switches and was registered as Spezial Fabrik elektrotechnischer Apparate. From 1928 the company was renamed Walther-Werke Ferdinand Walter. Late 1930s about 1,200 employees produced 6,000 different types of electrical accessories.
In 1946 the enterprise was expropriated and passed into public ownership. First it became part of VVB IKA (Installation, Kabel und Apparate) in Halle. In 1952 the company was registered as VEB Elektroschaltgeräte Grimma (see above).
Walther-Werke resumed activities in BRD and is based in Eisenberg (Pfalz). Production focuses on CEE sockets, connectors and cables and applications for electric vehicles.
Weber & Co. logo
Elektrotechnische Fabrik Weber & Co. in Kranichfeld bei Weimar (Thüringen). A porcelain factory, founded in 1902 in Kranichfeld, was in 1919 converted into the electro-technical factory Weber & Co. Besides electrical accessories and wiring material, the company produced also hanging and table lamps using trade name Weimar Leuchten.
Weber & Co. was expropriated in 1948 and became part of VEB IKA (see above).
Weisse & Co. logo

Weisse & Co. Fabrik elektotechnischer Artikel in Gräfenthal, Thühringen. There have been porcelain manufacturers in Gräfenthal , among others Weiß, Kühnert & Co. Possibly, Weisse & Co. originated as porcelain maker. Image nos 19-20 shows a Bakelite plug. Records of DDR bike part makers indicate that the company produced handle bar grips until 1948. More details have not been found.
L. Adolf Werneburg logo
L. Adolf Werneburg, elektrotechnische Fabrik in Sürth bei Köln. The company is mentioned in the 1954 list of MPAD codes, but not in the 1938 list. Any details are unknown. An LAW Schuko plug is shown on the classic Schuko page (see no. 9).
Heinrich Wiedersprecher logo
Heinrich Wiedersprecher elektrotechnische Fabrik in Erndtebrück, Westfalen. It seems likely that the company has been established after WW II since the MPAD code is only mentioned in the 1954 list. Plug production has probably ended around the 1980s. Other details about the company have not been found.
Wieland Electric logo

Wieland Electric GmbH. Friedrich Heinrich Wieland founded in 1910 the Elektrische Industriegesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung in Bamberg, Bayern. The still family owned company has specialized in electrical connection technology, notably pluggable installation components. From 1989 several daughter companies have been founded worldwide. Together with the acquired STOCKO Contact GmbH & Co. KG, they belong to the Wieland Holding.
Winkhaus logo
Casp. Arn. Winkhaus GmbH. In 1783 ancestors of Caspar Winkhaus started production of wrought iron tools in Carthausen-Halver, Westfalen. In 1926 it was decided to switch to electric installation material. From 1946 production of complex switches, as of cam switches and stacked rotary switches became the main products of the company. These switched are mainly used by electrical industry. However ceramic switch mechanisms for domestic switched are still made for Thomas Hoof Productgesellschaft (THPG).
WISI logos
WISI. In 1926 Wilhelm Sihn Jr. founded in Niefern, Baden-Wüttemberg a company for manufacturing communications equipment, including antennae, cables and signal processing systems. Initially wall and appliance connector plugs have been made for powering communication equipment, but domestic plugs are no longer part of the product range.
WISKA logos
WISKA Hoppmann GmbH. Hermann Mulsow and Wilhelm Hoppmann started in 1919 production of brass ship installation equipment in Hamburg. From 1925 also thermosetting plastics were used. Production facilities moved to Kaltenkirchen in 1969. WISKA is the only company that still produces the original HNA (Handelsschiff-Normen-Ausschuss) sockets and plugs for ships. The company is still owned by the family Hoppmann.
The abbreviation WISKA stands for Wasserdichte isolierstoffgekapselte Kabelarmaturen (waterproof cable fittings encapsulated in insulating material).
Wolff & Co. logo
Wolff & Co. KG in Walsrode (north of Hanover). A well-known company in Walsrode, named Wolff & Co. produced from 1878 until 1918, and from 1925 until 1945 gunpowder and nitrocellulose (guncotton) for military use. After both World Wars production was not allowed ifor a number of years. In the 1920 Wolff & Co. focused on projects related to rail technology and cellophane production. It is not clear whether the company has made Bakelite plugs (see no. 29), but another company named Wolff & Co. in Walsrode has not been found.

Listed below are companies that (1) produced Bakelite parts ordered by electro-technical companies that did not had press facilities, or (2) were specialized in producing porcelain / steatite or rubber parts of plugs, sockets and switches. The list is restricted to museum items.

Bebrit logo
22 Bebrit-Preßstoffwerke GmbH in Bebra, Thüringen. Founded by C.& F. Schlothauer GmbH in nearby Ruhla (see above). The company used trade-names Bebrit and Rulit for their phenol- and urea-formaldehyde resins. Products comprised parts for electro-technical, radio and optical indistries, but also fashion accessories.
Bisterfeld und Stolting logo
70 Bisterfeld & Stolting. Bakelite press work founded by engineer Ernst Bisterfeld and merchant Stolting in Radevormwald, Nordrhein-Westfalen. Details about the company have not been found, but Ernst Bisterfeld has applied several patents related to press work techniques from early 1930s until mid 1950s.
Burgmaier logo
Burgmaier Technologies GmbH & Co. KG. In 1931 founded by Hugo Burgmaier in Schmeichen (Württemberg) the Elektrotechnische Fabrik und Fassondreherei (Electrotechnical factory and special-shape turned parts). In 1945 French occupying powers stripped the manufacturing plant. Production restarted two years later. In 1996 a production facility was opened in France, and in 2004 in Slovakia.
ERSO logos

ERSO - E. Reisdörfer GmbH & Co. Company producing rubber parts for plugs and lamps, was founded in 1946  by Eugen Reisdörfer in Solingen. In 1949 the company moved to Bendorf (Rheinland-Platz). ERSO-Vertrieb, M. Adrion & Co a subsidiary for marketing of ERSO products was established in 1952. ERSO-Adrion moved in 1956 from Solingen to Essen-Kettwig. The name of the subsidiary changed to ERSO-Indulux. In 2015 ERSO-Indulux had to close and ERSO manufacturing and marketing are concentrated in Bendorf.
Joseph Müller Nürenberg logos
Joseph Müller GmbH & Co. Preß- und Spritzgußwerk KG. Founded in 1934 by Joseph Müller in Nürnberg. A family owned manufacturer of plastic parts made of thermo- and duroplast. Plugs are no longer a part of the product range.
Roemmler logo
H. Römmler AG. In 1867 August Hermann Römmler founded a company in Spremberg, Brandenburg for recycling waste from cloth and hat industry. In 1919 the company was one of the first to use phenol-formaldehyde resins for mouldings, electrotechnical materials and insulating boards. Patents secured a leading position in applying aminoplast. In 1938 Römmler AG is taken over by Brown Boveri Company. Directly after WW II the Soviet Union confiscated the company and transported all equipment to Russia. BBC resumes production of Resopal® in Groß Umstadt, Hessen. Electrotechnical accessories are no longer produced.
Logo of Presswerk AG Essen
Presswerk AG, Essen. Founded in 1925 as manufacturer of parts of telecommunication equipment, radios, domestic appliances and electrical accessories made of thermoplastic resins. In 1950 production of brake linings for cars began under the Pagid brand. The company, renamed Pagid, now fully focuses on brake pads and brake discs.
Steatit-Magnesia logo

logo on plugs and sockets
W3 Steatit-Magnesia AG, Nürnberg - Berlin-Pankow. The STEMAG company was a merger, in 1921, of (1) Steatit AG, (2) Vereinigte Magnesia-Co. & Ernst Hildebrand AG, (3) Jean Stadelmann & Co and (4) J. von Schwarz AG. In 1929 STEMAG merged with Porzellanfabrik Teltow GmbH. Besides production of steatite parts for electro-technical accessories, Steatit-Magnesia was also known for wire-less resistors and capacitors that were made in the Dralowid-Werk in Berlin-Teltow.
After WW II parts of Stemag were shipped to the Soviet Union for reparations. What remained became VEB Dralowid-Werk and VEB Elektrokeramik Pankow.
In 1950 Steatit-Magnesia (Stemag) GmbH started in Köln. In 1969 it was acquired by AEG. Stemag was closed in 2006.
Volkenrath logo
A3 Volkenrath GmbH & Co. KG. In 1883 Karl Theodor Volkenrath founded a small iron foundry in Schwenke, Westfalen. Bakelite press work was added in 1926. It became the main part of business, in particular for clients in electro-technical industry. Despite changing to modern thermosetting plastics and a wider range of customers, the family-owned business had to close in 2015.

Logos below have been found on plugs and/or sockets in the museum collection, but it has not been possible to trace the companies that have used the logos.
>> If you recognize a logo, please mail me; find the DMPS mail address on the start page. <<

Logo of unknown company, with capitals C F Unknown logo with D,  J and G
Unknown logo of German plug manufacturer Logo of unknown company, with capitals K J Logo of unknown company, with capitals W & S Logo of unknown company, with capital W
Unknown logo,
found on Duroplast
plug, comparable
to . Unknown
MPAD code B36.
Unknown logo,
found on HNA
plug comparable
to no. 6.
No MPAD code
Unknown logo,
found on Bakelite
plug comparable
to no. 26.
No MPAD code
Unknown logo,
found on Bakelite
plug, comparable
to no. 24.
No MPAD mark.
Unknown logo,
found on steatite
base of socket
no. 1.
Unknown logo,
found on 3-phase
plug no. 15, made
in DDR.
No DAMW mark.


MPAD: German industry standard for Bakelite* products, issued by the Staatliche Materialprüfungsamt zu Berlin-Dahlem (State Materials Testing Institute in Berlin-Dahlem). Marks contain a code that identifies the press work, which was often the manufacturer of plugs and sockets. MPAD marks were not compulsory. Bakelite products have been tested from 1924 until early 1960s.

DAMW: marks on products made of phenol- and urea-formadehyde resins (comparable to Bakelite) issued by the Deutsches Amt für Material und Warenprüfung (DDR Organization for Testing of Materials and Goods). From ca. 1960, DAMW marks were compulsory.
See page on MPAD and DAMW molding marks for details.

DDR: German Democratic Republic; GDR (1949-1990).

WW I: World War from 1914 to 1918.

WW II: World War from 1939 to 1945.

* Baketite is used as generic name for a variety of phenol- and urea-formaldehyde resins, produced under different trade names.

AG: Aktiengesellschaft, similar to public limited company (Plc) or corporation (Corp., Inc.).

Co.: companion, involved in a company but not mentioned by name. Could be a partner that has invested money in the company without having (direct) influence on business decisions.

GmbH: Gesellschaft mit beschränker Haftung, similar to private company limited by shares (Ltd.) or limited liability company (LLC).

KG: Kommanditgesellschaft is a limited partnership business in which one of the partners has full liability, while the other(s) has limited liability only.

oHG: offene Handersgesellschaft. All partners are fully liable for the partnership's debts (in contrast to a KG).

GmbH & Co. KG is a limited partnership with, typically, the sole general partner being a limited liability company. It is a special kind of KG-partnership with limited liability of all partners; often used by family owned businesses.

VEB: Volkseigener Betrieb means publicly owned operation. It was the main legal form of - state controlled - industrial enterprises in the German Democratic Republic. VEB's that produced similar products could be combined into a larger VEB Kombinat.

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