of plugs and sockets
|Logos and short
notes on history of
German manufacturers of plugs and sockets. The list
is primarily based on items in the museum collection. Many more
brands have existed. The list will be expanded gradually.
1. Manufacturers of plugs and sockets, listed in alphabetical
A - D E - J K - L M - R S - T V - W
2. Companies that only made steatite or Bakelite parts.
3. Unknown companies, represented in museum collection.
4. List of frequently used abbreviations.
• Information given by Reiner Hahn and Peter Martin.
• Bezugsquellenverzeichnis der Deutschen Elektroindustrie,
1937, and Die Deutsche Elektro-Industrie (1959 address list).
• Lists of MPAD and DAMW Bakelite press marks.
• Internet sites of companies.
• German Radiomuseum site.
• Wikipedia and other relevant sites.
® shown logos are registered trademarks of given companies and brands. Logos may not be copied, except for strict encyclopedic purposes in relation to plugs and sockets.
notes on history of German manufacturers:
Production of electrical accessories for domestic use started in the late 19th century with lamp fittings and switches. In the first decade of the 20st century, when supply of electricity to homes, offices and workshops was no longer exceptional, new entrepreneurs started production of electrical accessories, while others exchanged less profitable business for more promising prospects.
About half of the companies listed below were founded between 1910 and 1930. Production was boosted when the Beakeland patents run out of validity in 1926-'27. The electro-technical industry was of major importance to German economy. Products were exported to many countries around the world.
Before WW II Berlin, Sachsen/Thüringen, Westfalen/Rheinland and Franken (Nürnberg) were hot spots for electro-technical companies.
After WW II companies in the Soviet occupation zone were expropriated and severely hit by reparations. Equipment has been shipped to the Soviet Union. Companies that survived became state-owned VEB's. After German reunification, most facilities for production of domestic electrical accessories have been closed.
Production of plugs and sockets has also been changed elsewhere. For quite a number of manufacturers it was no longer profitable to rely on relative simple products. Alternative options were:
(1) exploring new markets, as automotive and communication industry, (2) focusing on niche markets of special types of plugs and sockets, or (3) outsourcing production to countries with cheap labour force.
of manufacturers and brands
||ABL. Albert Büttner
founded in 1923 the company Albert Büttner
in Lauf (near Nürnberg, Bayern). For a while the shortened
name ABL BEZEG has also been used. In 1925 Büttner designed an
and socket for domestic use that was a forerunner of the
plug (see Origin of Schuko).
In 1986 ABL merged with Sursum Elektrizitäts Gesellschaft, Leyhausen & Co. in Nürnberg. The company name changed to ABL-SURSUM.
||Gebrüder Adt AG. The company stems
from Pappmachéfabrik Adt (manufacturer of paper mâché
founded in 1839 by Peter III Adt, in Ensheim, near
Saarbrücken. The heydays of paper mâché processing ended when
Bakelite and comparable resins were developed. Eduard Franz Adt
(grandson of Peter III) widened the product range in the early 1900s by
using new resins as Lackit, Adit and Australit (patented by Adt).
Because of good
insulating properties, they were also used for insulated
conduits and electro-technical accessories.
After WW I the Saar region was controlled by France; the Adt factory was expropriated in 1919. A part of the Adt family moved to Hessen. Production of electro-technical material restarted in Wächtersbach (Hessen) and Gross-Auheim (near Hanau). After reunification of Saarland with Germany in 1935, Adt returned to Ensheim. After WW II, Saarland became again under French administration, until 1957. Among others for economic (currency) reasons the company was unable to restore its market position. The electro-technical expertise was taken over by Hager in 1955 (see below). Adt's facilities in Ensheim are still in use by the Hager Group.
Design 1907, '08, '12 logos: Peter Behrens
|Allgemeine Elektrizitäts-Gesellschaft AG.
Emil Rathenau founded in 1883 the Deutsche
Edison-Gesellschaft für angewante Elektrizität in Berlin. He had
acquired licenses to use some of Edison's lamp patents. In 1887
the company expanded its production range and adopted the AEG name.
engineer Dolivo-Dobrowolsy developed a three-phase electric power
system; AEG became a leading company in know-how and equipment for
electrical power engineering and transport (see also Kabelwerk
After WW II AEG lost many factories because they were situated in the Russian occupation zone. The other parts of AEG moved to Frankfurt am Main. In 1967 Telefunken (radio, TV) merged with AEG. Telefunken was sold in 1984 and two years later the other parts of AEG were acquired by Daimler-Benz. In 1994 the household division was sold to Electrolux, who now owns the rights to use and license the AEG trade name.
|Bals Elektrotechnik GmbH. Founded
in 1957 by Günter Bals and his wife Elisabeth. The company, based in
Kirchhundem-Albaum, Westfalen, has specialized in plugs and outlets for
heavy duty and outdoor applications. From 1968 IEC 60309 ('CEE Norm')
became a dominant range of pluggable connectors. More recently Bals
also connectors to charge electric vehicles.
||Bender & Wirth GmbH & Co.
In 1883 Hermann
and Carl August Wirth started in Kierspe, Westfalen,
production of electro-technical articles including sockets for the
lighting industry. Nowadays the company produces various types of
lamp fittings for lower voltage lamps including LED 's.
||Gebrüder Berker GmbH & Co. KG.
Robert and Hugo Berker founded in 1919 the Spezialfabrik für
elektrotechnische Apparate in Schalksmühle, Westfalen. In 1970
electro-technical companies, Berker, Gira and Jung have commonly
founded a subsidiary company, Insta, that develops and produces LED
illumination and matching accessories according to KNX standard for
offices and works. The Hager Group (see below) acquired Berker in 2010.
||Willy Berger elektro-mechanische
Werkstätten in Beelitz, Brandenburg. Date of founding is unknown,
but mentioned in a 1962
DAMW list of manufacturers that used Phenoplast and Aminoplast resins.
Berger used the trade name BEMA. The company is not mentioned in lists
of companies that were involved in Soviet reparation schemes. It is
likely that Berger has closed its electro-mechanical work during or at
the end of the DDR. Logo left has been found on Bakelite 220 Volt
plugs, logo right on a Bakelite 42 Volt concentric plug and socket.
Manufacturer of plugs in Schramberg, Baden-Würtemberg. The company had
an MPAD mark in 1938 and is listed in the 1959 Deutsche
Elektro-Industrie list. More recent information has not been found.
||Brunnquell elektrotechnische Apparate.
Founded in 1913 in Bebra-Sondershausen, Thüringen by Oskar Brunnquell
and his wife. Later, Brunquell
merged with Lindner & Co. in Sondershausen (see below). In
1946 the company was expropriated and factory
equipment was confiscated by the
Soviet Union for reparations. In 1948 Brunnquell became a part of VEB
Sondershausen (see below). The same year Karl-Heinz Brunnquell, son of
fled to Bavaria and restarted Brunnquell GmbH in Ingolstadt. The
company merged in 2012 with Heinrich Kopp GmbH (see below) and moved to
Kahl am Main. The name Brunnquell disappeared.
||Busch-Jaeger Elektro GmbH.
Hans-Curt Jäger (Jaeger) founded in 1887 in Schalksmühle a
company that made metal fittings for electric lamps with Swan screw
fitting. At the same time in Lüdenscheid Julius Bergmann and Friedrich
Wilhelm Busch started manufacturing metal odds and ends for uniforms
and shortly thereafter also parts for electrical accessories. In 1926
elektrotechnische Fabrieken F.W. Busch und Gebrüder Jaeger AG
founded. The company was the first that was allowed to produce Schuko
plugs and sockets (patented by Siemens). Shortly after
WW II the company designed for a while hot plates for cooking and
electrical radiators, only to survive. In 1969 Busch-Jaeger GmbH became
a part of the
Swiss Brown, Boveri & Cie, AG. In 1988 BBC merged with the Swedish
Asea and became ABB.
||Willy Buschhaus KG, Fabrik elektrischer
Lüdenscheid, Westfalen. Details about the company have not been found.
Bakelite plugs in the museum collection suggest that the Buschhaus
company was at least active in the 1950s.
||Dr. Deisting & Co. GmbH. Dr. Deisting founded in 1909
in Kierspe (Westfalen) the Spezialfabrik elektrotechnischer
Installations-Apparate und Isolierstoff-Presswerk. The company was
renown for high quality Bakelite plugs and sockets, but was unable to
make the switch to more modern thermosetting polymers and had to close
|Desco Werk, Seger and Angermeyer
Ittersbach, Baden Württemberg. Manufacturer of insulated cables.
Details about the company are unknown. The most recent patent that has
been found dates back to 1982. The IEC 60320 C7 plug in the museum
collection has probably been
made more recently.
|Düwi GmbH: see REV
||Elektroinstallation Annaberg (VEB EIA) in Annaberg, Sachsen. The Elektrische Fabriken Annaberg, founded in 1921 by AEG were expropriated in 1948 and became VEB EIA. After German reunification they were bought by ABB Stotz-Kontakt, but closed in 2001. A few years later it restarted as Elektro Innovation Annaberg GmbH, wholesale of various types of circuit breakers.|
||Elektroinstallation Ruhla (VEB ERU)
EIR may refer to the same company as ERU. It is likely that shortly
after WW II Storch & Stehmann (see below) was incorporated in the
ERU. What has happened with VEB ERU / EIR after German
reunification is not clear.
|Ellinger & Geissler, Fabrik elektrotechnischer Bedarfsartikel. In 1900 (or 1905) founded by Otto Ellinger and Max Geissler in Tharandt, near Dresden. The company moved soon to nearby Dorfhain. They used the trade name Elgesit. In 1946 the company was expropriated and became the VEB Elektro- und Radiozubehör Dorfhain ELRADO, which was included in 1969 in VEB Kombinat Elektronische Bauelemente Dorfhain. In 1991, a part of the VEB became Sächsische Elektronik-Werke GmbH in Klingenberg (later: AB Elektronik Sachsen GmbH), manufacture of electromechanical products for the automotive industry.|
|Carl Ernst, Fabrik elektrotechnischer
Steckkontakte. Founded in Berlin in the 1910s or earlier. Details
have not been found. The
company probably didn't survived the 1929-'32 depression years.
||Frankl & Kirchner GmbH & Co.
KG, Fabrik für Elektromotoren und elektrische Apparate,
was founded in 1886 by L. Frank and Wilhelm Kirchner in Mannheim. In
1891, Frankl became
regional sales representative of Siemens & Halske. Documentation
about activities of the company in the first half of the 20st century
have not been found. It seems likely that Frankl & Kirchner moved
in 1950 to Schwetzingen, Baden-Württemberg and was renamed EFKA, which
is now a manufacturer of
motors and controls for industrial sewing machines.
||Felmas. Gustav Schortmann started
1868, in Leipzig, the manufacture of parts for pianoforte musical
instruments. From ca. 1900 Gustav's son Oskar was in charge. In 1914
Schortmann & Sohn switched to production of parts for
ignition mechanisms of bombs (source). Shortly after WW I the Fabrik
Spezialartikel und Metallwaren Schortmann was established. The
acronym Felmas was chosen as trade name. In the 1930s it was one
of German market leaders for plugs and appliance connectors, but after
WW II the company was severely hit by Soviet Union reparations. New
Felmas installation materials have been made, but the successful
years were definitely over. Registration of the Gustav Schortmann &
Sohn ended in 2009.
* Gustav Schortmann did not had an MPAD code; Bakelite casts were usually made by Bisterfeld & Stolting.
||Richard Giersiepen, Elektrotechnische
Fabrik. Richard Giersiepen and his brother Gustav founded in 1905
the Fabrik von Apparaten für elektrische Beleuchtung in
Wichlinghausen, now part of Wuppertal. Production started with tumble
switches; other electrical accessories for domestic use followed soon.
company moved in 1910 to close by Radevormwald and was first renamed Gebrüder
Giersiepen and in 1920 Elektrotechnische Industrie Giersiepen;
the logo with E and I (Gothic I) was introduced. In 1964 company name
was shortened to Giersiepen Radevormwald and the Gira logo was
introduced. Gira is one of the founders of the Insta compay; see Berker
for details. Gira is still a family-owned company.
1960s from 1992
Grimma. Founded in 1923 in Grimma, Sachsen. Details of the
1920s-'30s company have not been found. Around 1950 the company became VEB
Elektroschaltgeräte Grimma. In the German Democratic
Republic years the
company was in particular active in manufacturing of heavy duty (380V
and above) switchgear and electrical accessories. In 1992, after the
German reunification, Elektroschaltgeräte Grimma GmbH restarted
production of boxes for electrical point heatings and switchgear;
initially with 5 employees.
|Hager Group. Peter Hager and his
sons Oswald and Hermann founded in 1955 Hager oHG,
in Ensheim (Saarbrücken), Saarland. The Hager Group consists of a large
number of electro-technical companies and business firms, and
operates as European Company SE (Societas Europaea). Hager has
manufacturers in seven European countries, India and China. They focus
on energy distribution, electrical wiring and building automation.
Headquarters of the still family owned company are based in
|Herth & Buss. Company founded
in 1925 by Philipp Herth and Jakob Buss in Langen (near Offenbach,
Hessen). Three years later the company moved to Offenbach.
Manufacturing electric parts for cars became core business, but given
the Bakelite 2-pin plug in the collection, accessories for domestic use
have also been marketed*. The company, renamed Herth + Buss
GmbH & Co. KG, is now based in Heusenstamm (near Offenbach).
* plug casts were made by Hugo Burgmaier.
||Richard Hirschmann GmbH & Co.
In 1924 Richard Hirschmann started production of simple, single wire
known as banana plugs in Esslingen (Württemberg).
Soon domestic 220V plugs were added to the product line. From 1933
Hirschmann shifted to development and production of various types of
antennas for receiving and transmission of radio and television
signals. In 1997 the company was was acquired by Rheinmetall and later
by a British investor who split the company in three parts. Hirschmann
GmbH was closed in 2004.
|W. Holzer & Co. KG. Austrian
Holzer founded in the 1950s the Fabrik elektrischer Schaltgeräte
Meersbug (Bodensee). Production of switches, plugs etc. for domestic
appliances was not restricted to German market. Holzer had also
branches in Italy and Switzerland to serve local markets. Further
details are unknown,
but the company does not exist anymore.
|N04||VEB für Installationen, Kabel und Apparate (IKA), was a conglomerate of companies founded in 1948; domicile in Halle, later in Leipzig. IKA was dissolved in 1953, but the trade- name remained in use for plugs and sockets that were made elsewhere, among others by VEB EIS and VEB EIR (see above). Both Brunnquell and Lindner were incorporated in EIS. Plugs and sockets made in Sondershausen had a flash symbol. After German reunification EIS was bought by Ahlstrom and renamed ELSO; in 1999 acquired by Schneider Electric.|
||Erich Jaeger GmbH & Co. KG.
Founded in Bad Homburg, Hessen, in 1927 by Erich Jäger. Started making
domestic plugs and other electrical accessories. The trade name
Isotherm has been used for appliance connector plugs. Production
to connector systems for motorcycle and automotive industry. Expanded
production facilities to Hong Kong, Czech Republic and Mexico. German
factory is now based in Friedberg, Hessen.
|Albrecht Jung GmbH & Co. KG. In
1912 founded by Albrecht Jung in Schalksmühle, Westfalen. Family owned
manufacturer of a large range of electrical accessories for domestic
and control of electric systems in houses and offices. Jung, Berker and
Gira founded the Insta company; see Berker for details.
|Kabelwerk Oberspree. Emil Rathenau,
founder of AEG, established a separate work, Kabelwerk Oberspree (KWO),
for production of electric cables. In 1897 a new plant was build in
Berlin Oberschöneweide. In particular cables for long distance
of electricity were produced; later also coax-cable for transmission of
radio and television signals. After WW II, production resumed, among
extension cables and Stromfix cable reels. In 1952 KWO and
other DDR cable manufacturers were combined in VEB
Kabelwerk Oberspree. After the reunification of
Germany VEB's were
dismantled. In 1992 KWO Kabel GmbH was acquired by the British
Insulated Callender's Cables Ltd.
||Kaiser Elektrotechnische Fabrik.
Founded by Martin Kaiser in 1939. The manufacturer of plugs, sockets,
extension cables, screw type lamp fittings and installation material is
based in Hochstadt am Main, Oberfranken / Bayern.
|Kalthoff GmbH. Founded in 1931 by
Alfred Kalthoff in Schalksmühle.
Started to produce switches and sockets made of porcelain and Bakelite.
In 1951 they started production of solid rubber plugs. The company has
specialized in production of shock, watertight and/or heat resistant
plugs, connectors and cabling solutions.
The company is still family-owned.
|Kaut & Bux.
Founded in 1919 as Spezialfabrik für Kollektoren und
Geräteschalter in Vaihingen, near Stuttgart, now based in
Baden-Württemberg. Production of the patented moulded commutators (part
of electro motor) started in 1926. In 1968 a joint venture was agreed
Slovenian company Kolektor Idrija. In 2002 Kautt & Bux became a
part of the Kolektor Group; five years later the company was renamed
Kolektor Kautt & Bux GmbH. Besides commutators K&B also
produces a variety of thermoset materials, among others appliance
|Hermann Kleinhaus. Details are
unknown. HKL Bakelite plug in the collection is connected to the
extension cord of a late 1920s Siemens-Schuckertwerke porcelain
quadruple outlet (nr.
15). Because Siemens produced its own plugs at that time, it is
questionable whether the HKL plug dated back to the late 1920s too.
|Kontakt AG, Fabrik
Spezialartikel: see Stotz-Kontakt.
||Heinrich Kopp. Company was founded
in 1927 by Heinrich Kopp in Reinheim, Hessen. Production started with
switches, mainly for export. In 1934 the company moved to Sonneberg,
Thüringen. Use of Bakelite casts offered the possibility to expand
production considerably. After WW II the company was expropriated
without any compensation. Heinrich Kopp left Eastern Germany and
resumed business in Bayern. In 1956 Kopp build new production
facilities in Kahl am Main. Branches were founded
in several countries. After several reorganizations, Heinrich
Kopp GmbH is now part of the Saudi Arabian Alfanar Group.
||Kostal GmbH & Co. KG. In 1912
Kostal founded in Lüdenscheid the Verarbeitungsstätten für
Isolation (Processing facilities for technical insulation).
included plugs and switches. In 1926 the company started
manufacturing products for the automotive industry. After WW II Kostal
had to wait until 1947 to resume production. In 1973 the first overseas
plant in Mexico was founded, several others followed later. Nowadays
focuses fully on products for automobile
applications; subsidiary companies are founded for derived
activities. Kostal is still a family-owned business.
||Krania. Manufacturing company of
plugs and sockets has been founded
in the 1960s (?) in Kranichfeld, Thüringen. Krania was probably a trade
name part of the VEB Elektroinstallation
Kranichfeld or VEB Kombinat Kabelwerk Oberspree. After the
reunification the company was renamed Krania-Kabel-Stecker Gmbh.
Krania develops and produces pre-assembled power transmission plugs and
||Kugella, formerly Max Roth GmbH.
Fabrik für Elektro-Installationsgegenstände (electro-
installation objects) in
Mittelschmalkalden, Thüringen. The company was active in the 1920s -'30
according to an advertisement in Elektrotechnische Zeitung (Vol. 49,
No. 42; 1928) and mention in the 1937 address list of German
electro-technical companies. It is unknown whether the company has
resumed production after WW II.
||Lindner & Co.
In 1902 Kurt Lindner took over a bankrupt manufacture of lamp fittings,
switches and safety fuses in Jecha-Sondershausen, Thüringen and renamed
the company Fabrik elektrotechnischer Nieder- und
Hochspannungsapparate, shortened to Lindner & Co. Jecha
Sondershausen. Later LJS merged
with Brunnquell & Co. (see above).
In 1946 factory equipment was confiscated by the Soviet Union for reparations. In 1948 the company became part of VEB Elektroinstallation Sondershausen (see below). Kurt Lindner fled to Eggolsheim near Bamberg, Bayern where he had "tbought" in 1938 the electro-technical factory of Hugo Löbl Söhne (see below). Later, the company was renamed Lindner Licht and focused on safety-ceramic parts for lamps. Thomas Hoof Produktgesellschaft has taken over Lindner Licht in 2011.
|Elektrotechnische Fabrik Hugo Löbl
Hugo Löbl started In 1916 an electro-wholesale in Bamberg, Bayern.
Together with his sons Sali, Fritz and Robert an electrical accessories
manufacturing company was founded in 1924. They were one of the first
to use a Bakelite-like resin, under the trademark "Hulorit", for
production of plugs, lamp sockets and wiring devices. The Jewish
company Hugo Löbl Söhne was confiscated in 1938 by Nazi Germany. The
company was "sold" to Lindner & Co. in Jecha-Sondershausen (see
renamed to Lindner & Co., Abteilung (division) Hulorit.
||Lohmann & Welschehold GmbH &
Co. KG. Elektrotechnische Fabrik was founded in 1897 in
Westfalen. Manufacturer of electrical accessories. In 2006 L&W was
taken over by
S.Franzen GmbH & Co. KG, manufacture of
metal and plastic parts in Solingen, Nordrhein-Westfalen. Production of
plugs and sockets has ended.
||Carl Friedrich Lübold, Fabrik
elektrotechnische Bedarfsartikel in Lüdenscheid, Westfalen.
The only information found on internet seems to be related to company products made during WW II. C.F. Lübold is no longer mentioned in the 1954 list of MPAD molding marks.
||Maehler & Kaege.
Hugo Maehler and Wilhelm Kaege founded in 1907 the Elektrotechnische
Spezialfabrik AG in Ingelheim am Rhein (north of Mainz). The
company offered a range of lamps for use outdoors and (petro)chemical
industry. Furthermore concentric and lockable plugs and sockets. From
M&K is oriented to electrical connectors and cables for
automotive industry . Production and logistics moved to Brno, Czech
Republic. The Nieder-Ingelsheim work closed in 2007. In 2013 the
M&K Group was acquired by the Dutch private equity fund Fields
|Mennekes Elektrotechnik GmbH & Co.
KG. Founded in 1935 by Aloys Mennekes in Kirchhundem, Sauerland. In
1949 the company's aluminium foundry produced the first one-piece
plugs. Plastic moulding production started 1957. Mennekes focuses on
industrial plugs and socket (IEC 60309 and Schuko) and more recently
electric mobility. Branches in over 90 countries have been set up.
Mennekes is still a family owned company.
||Merten GmbH. The Merten brothers
Ernst, August and Emil founded in 1906 the Gebrüder Merten
company in Windhagen-Gummersbach, Rheinland. Initially
installation components were produced. In 1926 Merten started to focus
and sockets. In the 1930s Merten Bakelite press facilities have also
been used for very different products. 'Merit' was among other
used for photo and laboratory applications. From 1985 the range of
products was enlarged with
electronic accessories for buildings. In 2000 intelligent control
devices were added. In 2006 the company was acquired
by Schneider Electric.
|N&L Elektrotechnik GmbH.
Founded in 1983 as business enterprise in Karlstein, Bayern.
Production of N&L plugs, sockets and track wiring system started in
1992 in a new factory in Elterlein (Erzgebirge), Sachsen.
|Nostitz & Koch, Fabrik
elektrischer Apparate in Chemnitz, Sachsen. It has
found when Nostitz and Koch started manufacturing switches, plug and
transformers, but advertisements indicate that it must be before
1920. Correspondence kept in archives of the German federal state of
Saxony show that Nostitz and Koch still existed in 1947. It is likely
that either the company was expropriated and became part of a VEB, or
the company was dismantled and equipment has been transported to the
Soviet Union for war reparations.
electro-technical company of Felix Hofmann in Berlin-Charlottenburg
used the trademark Oger. It is unknown when the company was founded
(1920s or earlier ?). Trade name Oger is listed in a 1937 address list
of German electro-technical companies. It is unknown whether Hofmann
was back in business after WW II.
|Paul Hochköpper GmbH & Co. KG. In 1922 Paul Hochköpper and Otto Winkel the Fabrik elektrotechnischer Installations-Materialen in Lüdenscheid, Westfalen for production of switches, plugs, sockets etc. Trade name PEHA, based on his initials was introduced much later; PEHA logo in black an white shown left dated back to the 1950s. The company was acquired by Honeywell in 2010. PEHA works moved in 2015 from Lüdenscheid to Halver.|
|Elektrotechnische Fabrik Popp & Co.
Founded in 1930 by Heinrich Popp in Röhrenhof bei Berneck, Bayern. He
started with production of ceramic switches and lamp sockets. From 1951
wall switches, cables and plugs were added. In 2008 Popp & Co. and
Düwi launched the Z-wave communication standard for domotica.
||Presto-Vedder GmbH. In 1904 the
Vedder brothers founded in Schalksmühle, Westfalen Gebrüder Vedder
later renamed Presto-Vedder. The old GVS logo indicates that
initially switches were the main product, but soon followed
by sockets and plugs. The company is now based in Altena, Westfalen.
|Rademacher GmbH. Ernst Rademacher
was a electrical appliance retailer in Düsseldorf who started in 1914 a
company that produced his own designs for industrial lighting hand and
desk lamps. Some of his lamp designs are nowadays sought
after by collectors. Schmidt Strahl (industrial, street and office
lights) has acquired Rademacher GmbH in 2009.
The Bakelite cast of the museum plug has been made by Volkenrath & Co (see below).
||REV Ritter GmbH. Founded in 1978 by
Frank Ritter. Manufacturer and wholesale of electrical installation
applications. Family business is based in Mömbris, Unterfranken region,
Bayern. Central distribution is located in Thal-Ruhla, Thüringen. REV
Ritter products are sold through DIY distribution warehouses. In 2009
Ritter incorporated the insolvent company Düwi, including Düwi
subsidiaries in Czech Republic, Poland and Hungary.
Düwi GmbH, was founded in 1969 by Frank Düllmann. Düwi was based in Breckenfeld, Sauerland. Activities were comparable to REV Ritter. The parent company of Düwi - the Reitz Gruppe - was declared bankrupt in 2009 and Düwi had to close also. The trade name Düwi remained as trade name, now owned by REV Ritter, for Z-wave domotica products.
|Ridem. Trade name used by the
company of Richard Demmler's widow (Wwe), Fabrik für
elektrotechnische Porzellan- und Isolierstoff-Apparate in
Blechhammer (near Sonneberg),
Thüringen. It is unknown when Richard has founded the company. A patent
application for the plug in the museum collection dates back to 1950.
Patent is submitted by Hugo Demmler in Blechhammer. Shortly after WW II
companies in the DDR were expropriated and became parts of VEB's. What
has happened with Ridem is not clear.
||C. & F. Schlothauer GmbH. In
1868 Otto Schlothauer started in Ruhla, Thüringen production of metal
parts used by makers of dresses, fashion accessories, wallets etc. From
1883 his sons Christoph and Friedrich took over daily management and
the company was renamed C. & F. Schlothauer oHG. By adding a brass
foundry, Bebrit press work and porcelain
product range, and number of workers, grew considerably.
Electro-technical materials for homes (switches, lamp sockets) and cars
became important parts of business.
After WW II the Elektrowerk Schlothauer became a Soviet AG and was renamed Elektroarmaturenwerk Ruhla (EAW). In 1950 the company was given back to DDR authorities. Wiring and domestic electro-technical products became a part of VEB IKA. Parts for cars became VEB Elektrische Fahrzeugausrüstung Ruhla (EFR).
|Scholz & Wenzel,
Thüringen. Bakelite plugs in the collection, made by Scholz &
Wenzel date back to the 1930s. The company is mentioned in list of
manufacturers that were involved in Soviet Union reparations (1946).
Other details about Scholz & Wenzel have not been found, but a
1960s-'70s appliance connector
with Scholz & Wenzel logo and a TLG quality mark indicates that
plug production has resumed after WW II.
|Schulte Elektrotechnik GmbH &
Co. KG. In 1964 Siegfried Schulte founded in Lüdenscheid a company for
electrical accessories. Production started with motor, zero voltage and
dead man's switches that made dangerous machines safer. Schulte focuses
now on EVOline® switches, sockets, plugs etc. The remarkable flat
was developed in 2010.
||Max Schulze. Fabrik
Spezialartikel in Meißen (Sachsen). When the company has been
founded is unknown. The simple Bakelite plug in the collection suggests
that the company was already active around 1930. Max Schulze is
mentioned in a list of companies that were involved in Soviet Union
||Siemens AG. In 1847 Werner von
Siemens and Johann Georg Halske founded the telegraph company Telegraphen-Bauanstalt
von Siemens & Halske in Berlin. In 1866 Siemens invented the
electrical generator, which was major breakthrough in electricity
generation. In 1903 Siemens electrical engineering work was merged with
Elektrizität-AG Schuckert & Co. and became
Siemens-Schuckertwerke (SSW). Siemens & Halske division specialized
communication engineering. Plugs and sockets have been made by Siemens,
or by ABL on behalf of Siemens for domestic electrical appliances in
the 1920s-'30s. The trade name Protos has also been used.
In 1966 Siemens & Halske, Siemens-Schuckertwerke and Siemens-Reiniger-Werke (medical applications) have been united into Siemens AG. Siemens is operating worldwide and is one of leading companies in electricity generation, health care equipment, transport systems etc.
1950-1990 from 1993
|SLF. In the early 1910s Galkowski
& Kielblock founded in Eberswalde, Brandenburg, a metal foundry
that was specialized in producing equipment for ships, among other
(flood)lights. After WW II the company was expropriated and
became VEB Schiffsarmaturen- und Leuchtenbau Finow. They
electro-installation material and lighting for ships, army and others
that needed robust, watertight equipment. The company closed in 1990,
but restarted three later, on a much smaller scale, as SLF
Spezialgerät- und Leuchtenbau Finow GmbH, still in Eberswalde.
|Spelsberg & Koring GmbH, in
Altroggenrahmede, Westfalen. Details are unlnown.
The S&K plug in the collection is a simple, not earthed model with round base (no. 18), without MPAD mark.
F(ranz) ST(auch) U(nterrodach)
||Franz Stauch, Presswerk.
company has been founded in the 1930s in Unterrodach,
Franken (northeast Bavaria). Franz Stauch is mentioned in the 1938 and
1954 address lists of electro-technical companies. His Bakelite plugs
were commonly available in the 1950s. The company has also been found
a 1983 list of companies that had DIN 7728 certified duroplast press
works. It is likely that the work has closed later in the 1980s (or
||Storch & Stehmann elektrotechnische
Metallwarenfabrik in Ruhla, Thüringen. It has not been found
when the company was founded, but given the first, of many patents
granted to Edmund Stehmann is will be not later than the early 1920s.
Advertisements that appeared in the 1920s
recommend lamp fittings, sockets, plugs and switches. In 1946 the
company was confiscated for Soviet Russian reparations. What remained
was probably incorporated in a VEB Elektroinstallation Ruhla (see
Stotz Kontakt AG Stotz-Kontakt
ABB, from 1988
||Stotz-Kontakt. In 1891 Moyé and
Hugo Stotz founded the company Elektrotechnische Installationen
Mannheim. When Moyé left the company five years later
was renamed Stotz und Cie, Elektrizitätsgesellschaft. In 1918
became a subsidiary of the Swiss company Brown, Boveri Cie (BBC)
and was renamed Stotz und Cie GmbH, Fabrik elektrischer
In 1930 Stotz merged with Kontakt AG, Fabrik elektrotechnischer Spezialartikel in Frankfurt am Main. A fire destroyed the Stotz-Kontakt work in 1939; a new factory was build in Heidelberg. In 1969 the company merged with the electro division of Busch-Jaeger. In 1988 the Heidelberg work renamed ABB (Asea Brown Boveri) Stotz-Kontakt GmbH.
||Sursum Elektrizitäts Gesellschaft, Leyhausen & Co., founded by Wilhelm Leyhausen in Nürnberg. Date of founding has not been found, but it existed already in 1925. Sursum designed the first screw-in circuit breaker with electromagnetic tripping. In 1986 Sursum and ABL merged.|
||Thega-Kontakt GmbH. The Fabrikation
und Vertieb elektrotschnische Installationartikel (Production and
of electro-technical installation material) was founded in 1923 in
Berlin-Kreuzberg. The Jewish business was confiscated by Nazi German
authorities in 1938. It is not known whether the company has been
renamed and taken over by others.
||Vaudeha Elektrotechnische Fabrik.
Founded in Lüdenscheid by the von der Horst brothers in 1930s (?) Later
renamed Vaudeha Electro GmbH. In 1975 the company was registered in
Abbeyfeale, Co Limerick, Ireland. In 1981 Kostal Ireland GmbH was
established at (possibly) the same address in Abbeyfeale. Vaudeha is no
longer active, neither in Lüdenscheid, nor in Ireland. Company checks
on internet suggest that Vaudeha has been taken over by Kostal.
Note that von der Horst appliance connectors exist that have two logos: VDH logo (left) and an MPM logo. These plugs have been made for 1960s EMPEEM irons, possibly a brand of Rowenta.
|Vogtländische Elektro-Industrie, Spezialfabrik der Elektrotechnik in Plauen, Vogtland - Sachsen. Probably founded in the 1920s by Mr. Süppel. The company was expropriated in 1946 and renamed Volkseigener Betrieb Plauen (VEB EIP). Two EIP logos have been found on two, nearly identical outlets. After German reunification the Vogtländische Elektroindustrie GmbH was privatized. The company had to close in 2007.|
Voigt & Haeffer Prometheus
||Voigt & Haeffner.
In 1885 Jacob Staudt and
Heinrich F. J. Voigt founded the company Staudt & Voigt in
am Main for electrical installation material. Staudt leaved the company
in 1890. His position was replaced by Adolf Haeffner. In 1891 the
company renamed Voigt & Haeffner. In 1896
they founded a new division for electric cooking and heating
appliances, named Chemisch-elektrische
Fabrik Prometheus. V&H was well known for the high quality of
its products. The part of V&H
manufactures installations that switches on/off electricity supply
systems was acquired by Siemens AG in 1971. In 2003 the remaining part
of V&H became member of the Norwegian Eltek Group and was renamed
Eltek Deutschland GmbH. From 2015 Eltek is part of Delta Group, Taiwan.
||Elektrotechnische Fabrik Weber & Co.
in Kranichfeld bei Weimar (Thüringen). A porcelain factory, founded in
1902 in Kranichfeld, was in 1919 converted into the electro-technical
factory Weber & Co. Besides electrical accessories and wiring
material, the company produced also hanging and table lamps using trade
name Weimar Leuchten.
Weber & Co. was expropriated in 1948 and became part of VEB IKA (see above).
|Weisse & Co. Fabrik
Artikel in Gräfenthal, Thühringen. There have been porcelain
manufacturers in Gräfenthal , among others Weiß, Kühnert & Co.
Possibly, Weisse & Co. originated as porcelain maker. Image nos 19-20 shows a Bakelite
plug. Records of
DDR bike part makers indicate that the company produced handle bar
until 1948. More details have not been found.
||L. Adolf Werneburg, elektrotechnische
Fabrik in Sürth bei Köln. The company is
mentioned in the 1954 list of MPAD codes, but not in the 1938 list. Any
details are unknown. An LAW
Schuko plug is shown on the classic Schuko page (see no. 9).
in Erndtebrück, Westfalen. It seems likely that the company has been
established after WW II since the MPAD code is only mentioned in the
1954 list. Plug production has probably ended around the 1980s. Other
details about the company have not been found.
|Wieland Electric GmbH. Friedrich
Heinrich Wieland founded in 1910 the Elektrische
mit beschränkter Haftung in Bamberg, Bayern. The still family owned
company has specialized in electrical connection technology, notably
pluggable installation components. From 1989 several daughter companies
have been founded worldwide. Together with the acquired STOCKO Contact
GmbH & Co. KG, they belong to the Wieland Holding.
||Casp. Arn. Winkhaus GmbH. In 1783
ancestors of Caspar Winkhaus started production of wrought iron tools
in Carthausen-Halver, Westfalen. In 1926 it was decided to switch to
electric installation material. From 1946 production of complex
as of cam switches and stacked rotary switches became the main products
of the company. These switched are mainly used by electrical industry.
switch mechanisms for domestic switched are still made for Thomas Hoof
||WISI. In 1926 Wilhelm Sihn Jr.
founded in Niefern, Baden-Wüttemberg a company for manufacturing
communications equipment, including antennae, cables and signal
processing systems. Initially wall and appliance connector plugs have
been made for powering communication equipment, but domestic plugs are
no longer part of the product range.
||WISKA Hoppmann GmbH. Hermann Mulsow
and Wilhelm Hoppmann started in 1919 production of
brass ship installation equipment in Hamburg. From 1925 also
were used. Production facilities moved to Kaltenkirchen in 1969. WISKA
is the only company that still produces the original HNA
(Handelsschiff-Normen-Ausschuss) sockets and plugs for ships.
company is still owned by the family Hoppmann.
The abbreviation WISKA stands for Wasserdichte isolierstoffgekapselte Kabelarmaturen (waterproof cable fittings encapsulated in insulating material).
||Wolff & Co. KG in Walsrode
(north of Hanover). A well-known company in Walsrode, named Wolff
& Co. produced from 1878 until 1918, and from 1925 until 1945
gunpowder and nitrocellulose (guncotton) for military use.
After both World Wars production was not allowed ifor a number of
years. In the
1920 Wolff & Co. focused on projects related to rail technology and
cellophane production. It is not clear whether the company has made
(see no. 29), but
another company named Wolff & Co. in Walsrode has not been found.
|Listed below are companies that (1)
produced Bakelite parts ordered by electro-technical companies
that did not
had press facilities, or (2) were specialized in
producing porcelain / steatite or rubber parts
list is restricted to museum items.
in Bebra, Thüringen. Founded by
C.& F. Schlothauer GmbH in nearby Ruhla (see above). The company
trade-names Bebrit and Rulit for their phenol- and urea-formaldehyde
resins. Products comprised parts for electro-technical, radio and
optical indistries, but also fashion accessories.
|70||Bisterfeld & Stolting. Bakelite
press work founded by engineer Ernst Bisterfeld and merchant Stolting
Nordrhein-Westfalen. Details about the company have not been found, but
Ernst Bisterfeld has applied several patents related to press work
techniques from early 1930s until mid 1950s.
||Burgmaier Technologies GmbH & Co. KG.
In 1931 founded by Hugo Burgmaier in Schmeichen (Württemberg) the Elektrotechnische
Fabrik und Fassondreherei
and special-shape turned parts). In 1945 French occupying powers
stripped the manufacturing plant. Production restarted two years later.
In 1996 a production facility was opened in France, and in 2004 in
|ERSO - E. Reisdörfer GmbH & Co.
Company producing rubber parts for plugs and lamps, was founded in
1946 by Eugen Reisdörfer in Solingen. In
1949 the company moved
to Bendorf (Rheinland-Platz). ERSO-Vertrieb, M. Adrion & Co a
subsidiary for marketing of ERSO products was established in
1952. ERSO-Adrion moved in 1956 from Solingen to
Essen-Kettwig. The name of the subsidiary changed to ERSO-Indulux. In
2015 ERSO-Indulux had to close and ERSO manufacturing and marketing are
||Joseph Müller GmbH & Co. Preß- und
Spritzgußwerk KG. Founded in 1934 by Joseph Müller in Nürnberg. A
family owned manufacturer of plastic parts made of thermo- and
duroplast. Plugs are no longer a part of the product range.
||H. Römmler AG. In 1867 August
Hermann Römmler founded a company in Spremberg, Brandenburg for
recycling waste from cloth and hat industry. In 1919 the company was
one of the first to use phenol-formaldehyde resins for
electrotechnical materials and insulating boards. Patents secured a
leading position in applying aminoplast. In 1938 Römmler AG is taken
over by Brown Boveri Company. Directly after WW II the Soviet Union
confiscated the company and transported all equipment to Russia. BBC
resumes production of Resopal® in Groß Umstadt, Hessen.
Electrotechnical accessories are no longer produced.
||Presswerk AG, Essen. Founded in
manufacturer of parts of telecommunication equipment, radios, domestic
appliances and electrical
accessories made of thermoplastic resins. In 1950 production of brake
linings for cars began under
the Pagid brand. The company, renamed Pagid, now fully focuses on brake
pads and brake discs.
logo on plugs and sockets
|W3||Steatit-Magnesia AG, Nürnberg -
Berlin-Pankow. The STEMAG company was a merger, in 1921, of (1) Steatit
AG, (2) Vereinigte Magnesia-Co. & Ernst Hildebrand AG,
Stadelmann & Co and (4) J. von Schwarz AG. In 1929
STEMAG merged with Porzellanfabrik Teltow GmbH. Besides
steatite parts for
electro-technical accessories, Steatit-Magnesia was also known for
wire-less resistors and capacitors that were made in the Dralowid-Werk
After WW II parts of Stemag were shipped to the Soviet Union for reparations. What remained became VEB Dralowid-Werk and VEB Elektrokeramik Pankow.
In 1950 Steatit-Magnesia (Stemag) GmbH started in Köln. In 1969 it was acquired by AEG. Stemag was closed in 2006.
|A3||Volkenrath GmbH & Co. KG. In
1883 Karl Theodor Volkenrath founded a small iron foundry in Schwenke,
Westfalen. Bakelite press work was added in 1926. It became the main
part of business, in particular for clients in electro-technical
industry. Despite changing to modern thermosetting plastics and a wider
range of customers, the family-owned business had to close in 2015.
|Logos below have been found on plugs
and/or sockets in the museum collection, but it has not been possible
to trace the companies that have used the logos.
>> If you recognize a logo, please mail me; find the DMPS mail address on the start page. <<
found on Duroplast
to no. 10. Unknown
MPAD code B36.
found on Bakelite
to no. 26.
No MPAD code
found on steatite
socket no. 1 for
found on Bakelite
to no. 24.
No MPAD mark.
found on steatite
base of socket
found on 3-phase
plug no. 15, made
No DAMW mark.
MPAD: German industry standard for Bakelite* products, issued by the Staatliche Materialprüfungsamt zu Berlin-Dahlem (State Materials Testing Institute in Berlin-Dahlem). Marks contain a code that identifies the press work, which was often the manufacturer of plugs and sockets. MPAD marks were not compulsory. Bakelite products have been tested from 1924 until early 1960s.
DAMW: marks on products made of phenol- and urea-formadehyde resins (comparable to Bakelite) issued by the Deutsches Amt für Material und Warenprüfung (DDR Organization for Testing of Materials and Goods). From ca. 1960, DAMW marks were compulsory.
See page on MPAD and DAMW molding marks for details.
DDR: German Democratic Republic (1949-1990).
WW I: World War from 1914 to 1918.
WW II: World War from 1939 to 1945.
* Baketite is used as generic name for a variety of phenol- and urea-formaldehyde resins, produced under different trade names.
similar to public
limited company (Plc) or corporation (Corp., Inc.).
Co.: companion, involved in a company but not mentioned by name. Could be a partner that has invested money in the company without having (direct) influence on business decisions.
GmbH: Gesellschaft mit beschränker Haftung, similar to private company limited by shares (Ltd.) or limited liability company (LLC).
KG: Kommanditgesellschaft is a limited partnership business in which one of the partners has full liability, while the other(s) has limited liability only.
oHG: offene Handersgesellschaft. All partners are fully liable for the partnership's debts (in contrast to a KG).
GmbH & Co. KG is a limited partnership with, typically, the sole general partner being a limited liability company. It is a special kind of KG-partnership with limited liability of all partners; often used by family owned businesses.
VEB: Volkseigener Betrieb means publicly owned operation. It was the main legal form of - state controlled - industrial enterprises in the German Democratic Republic. VEB's that produced similar products could be combined into a larger VEB Kombinat.
|D i g i t a l M u s e u m o f||P l u g s a n d S o c k e t s|