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overview of plugs, sockets and topics
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To find a plug, socket or topic you can use either the list below or the Map page.

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Note that in the list below 'plugs' refer in most cases to both plugs and sockets.


General information



Plug diversity and safety
Origin of US flat blade plugs
Origin of Australian plugs with angled blades
Origin of Schuko plugs
British plugs and sockets; short history
Origin of domestic sockets with earth pin
pre-IEC 60320 appliance connectors
Earthed sockets with similar contact configuration
Manufacturers (
links to 27 countries)
Three-phase AC generator
Three-phase transformers
Split-phase wiring
Radial and ring circuits
Knob and Tube (classic US wiring technique)

Plug and socket safety (technical improvements)
Socket safety shutter (5 types explained)
Plug pin - socket connection (achiving stable contact)
Locking plugs (
links to different types)

Bakelite molding marks (MPAD, DAMW, PF)
Certification marks
DDR quality marks

Plug standards*

* Standards may fill several
pages. Additional links are
given on the first page.
AS/NZS 3112
BS 52
BS 546
BS 1363
BS 4573
CEE 7/1, 7/2 (7/1 = socket; 7/2 = plug)
CEE 7/3, 7/4
CEE 7/5, 7/6
CEE 7/7
CEE 7/16
CEE 7/17
CEI 23-50
GOST 7396
IEC 60309 (CEE 17)
IEC 60320
IEC 60906-1
IEC 62196
IRAM 2063, 2071 and 2073
IS 1293
JIS 8303
NBR 14136
NEMA ...

SB 107-2D1

SN 441011 (SEV 1011)
TIS 166-2549
Australia, New Zealand, China, Argentina, ...
Bayonet cap sockets, plugs and adapters
UK and (former) countries of British commonwealth
Prime UK standard but also used elsewhere
British shaver socket and plug
European not earthed devices other than 7/16 and 7/17
European earthed devices, also known as Schuko
European earthed devices; socket has an earth pin
Plugs that fit in 7/1, 7/3 and 7/5 sockets
European 2.5 Amp plug; fits in all European sockets
Not earthed 16A plug; fits in both 7/3 and 7/5 sockets
Italy, Chile, ...
Russia and countries of former Soviet Union
International industrial plug standard
International standard for appliance couplers
International standard for 230 Volt domestic plug
International standard for electrical vehicle plugs
Brazilian variant of IEC 60906-1
Series of US standards, also used in Canada, Mexico
South Africa
Socket standards

Standards of domestic sockets Illustrated overview
Special plugs
and sockets
Adapter plugs
Ceiling lamp sockets and plugs
Concentric plugs and sockets
Locking plugs (
page with links to ...)
Multi-standard sockets
Neutrik cable and chassis connectors
Uncommon plugs (
links to ...)
Clock connectors (Wylex / MK)

Making plugs accessible to a non-matching socket
For safe and convenient connection of ceiling lamps
Single pin and dual concentric ring types
Child safety measure
Sockets in countries that use several plug standards
Sealed couplers with locking device
Plugs used for various types of special purposes
British socket / plug combinations for electric clocks
Country specific pages Argentina   Brazil   Chile   China
Czech Republic   Greece   Japan 
Netherlands   Russia   Slovakia  
South Africa   Spain   Uruguay

Classic plugs*

* Links to obsolete plugs can
also be found on standard and country specific pages.

Appliance connectors (links to ...)
Connectors to branch off cords
Continental European plugs (links)
Dutch plugs
Former GDR (DDR)
Greek Tripoliki polug
Hook plug (Hakenstecker)

Wooden plugs

British phased out plugs:

Bayonet Cap
Bulgin and Belling Lee (connector p;ugs)
BS 372 Part I (not earthed plugs)
Dorman & Smith

Heavy duty and three-phase plugs
Current and classic plugs in ...:
IEC 60309
IEC 62096 (for electric vehicles)

Australia / New Zealand   Belgium   Denmark   France  Germany   Italy   Japan   North America   Poland   Spain   Switzerland 
Other pages About the collection
About the collector
Classification of standards (A, B, C ... N)
Compatibility (re. European sockets)
Distribution board (D-type / Diazed fuses)
Links to other museums
Unknown plugs
Pages showing a single device in detail:

Academy Cube (US)
Busch-Jaeger / Miele socket (Germany)
Crater adaptable plug (UK)
Easy-Pull plug handle (South Africa)
Fitall 5 in 1 plug (UK)
Kontakt AG 3-phase plug (Germany)
Maehler & Kaege locking plug (Germany)
Neutrik PowerCON (Liechtenstein)

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